Why does the author title Caetana’s life story, “Patriarchy Confounded?” Why does the author title Inácia Delfina Werneck’s life story, “Patriarchy Confirmed?”




In the two sections of her book, Sandra Lauderdale Graham gives us two very different visions of patriarchy in a slave society. Craft an analytical essay that explains what factors led different people to experience patriarchy in distinct ways in imperial Brazil. Your answer to this question should be the thesis of the paper. Think about the following overarching questions as you develop that thesis and organize the paper.

Why does the author title Caetana’s life story, “Patriarchy Confounded?” For example, how did an understanding of patriarchy within Caetana’s own family come into conflict with the patriarchal authority of Tolosa? Secondly, why does the author title Inácia Delfina Werneck’s life story, “Patriarchy Confirmed?” For example, in what ways did Inácia use her will to fulfill a traditional role of the wealthy class, and in what ways did she use her will to challenge tradition?

Make sure your paper describes the historical context of slavery and empire and places Caetana’s and Inácia’s experiences within that context. This means, you have to push beyond just summarizing the book, and you must incorporate material from our lectures. Papers based solely on the book with no content from the lectures will be marked down. Your paper will be evaluated on your familiarity with the book and with the relevant lectures.




Papers should be 4 pages in length, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins, and typed in 11pt. or 12pt. font. Papers may not exceed 5 pages. The strongest essays will begin with a specific argument (thesis statement) related to the topic and develop themes and specific, concrete examples that support and illustrate that thesis. The thesis is explicitly stated in the introductory paragraph. Each of the paragraphs in the body of the paper begins with a topic sentence and contains evidence from the reading and the lectures to support it. The paper ends with a concluding paragraph that restates the thesis and the major ideas expressed in the essay.

Papers must be properly cited with footnotes. Remember to footnote your sentences when using direct quotes from the texts and when paraphrasing the author’s ideas. No citations are needed when you use material from your lecture notes. Footnotes should be formatted according to Chicago Style. If you are unfamiliar with Chicago-style citation, we have full access to the digital Chicago Manual of Style through the library’s website. Search for “Chicago Manual of Style online” in the library catalog.



Writing Checklist: Consider BEFORE You Submit

___Is there a thesis statement? Is it a clear and strong thesis statement? Is it where it should be, at the end of the first paragraph?

___Does the body offer evidence supporting the thesis? Does each paragraph advance a mini-argument? Does each paragraph support the thesis?

___Does the conclusion summarize the argument?

___Do the paragraphs follow in a logical order and lead to the conclusion?

___Are facts, dates, quotes correct? Are they used in appropriate places? Are they cited?

___Are quotes properly explained?

___Does the paper answer the question posed using evidence from the book and context from lecture?

___Does the writing allow the reader to see the argument and evidence, rather than obscuring the argument?

___Does the writing convey the ideas as clearly as possible?

___Is citation done correctly?

___Is the writing appropriate for a formal paper? Is it free of contractions? Is terminology correct? Is the grammar correct?

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