Which of the following is a basic element of classical criminology?
Human behavior is a product of social, biological, or economic forces that can be empirically measured.
Crime exists because of a lack of norms or clear social standards.
Crime is attractive when it promises great benefits with little effort.
Crime is a product of the capitalist system.
Rational choice theorists view crime as both _________ and ________ specific.
Offense and offender
Reward and offender
Victim and offender
Offense and victim
______________ behavior is any action that departs from the social norms of society.
Which was the first written criminal code?
Common Law Code
Code of Hammurabi
To address the nonreporting issue, the federal government sponsors the:
____________ deterrence holds that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts.
____________ uses multiple advances computational methods, including artificial intelligence, to analyze large data sets usually involving one or more data solutions.
Criminologists look for _________ crime-rate patters to gain insight into the nature of crime.
In the past, how did criminologists view crime victims?
As an indirect role in a criminal incident.
As merely the passive targets of a criminal’s anger or greed.
As fully responsible for the criminal incident.
As an active role in the incident.
People who are crime victims are ___________ likely to commit crimes themselves.
People living ___________ are more likely to be vandalized.
On military bases
In rural areas
In suburban communities
Victim precipitation can be either:
Scientific or empirical
Active or passive
Encouraged or discouraged
Instigated or non-responsive
Shoplifting and vandalism are considered ________ thrills because getting away with crime is a thrilling demonstration of personal competence.
What occurs when increased patrols in one community shift the crime to a more vulnerable neighborhood?
What is the repetition of criminal behavior called?
____________ assumes that behavioral traits may be inherited but that they may also evolve.
When looking at the connection between genetics and crime, researchers have evaluated all the following except:
Parental deviance studies
According to social learning theories, violence is learned through a process called
One’s personality reflects a characteristic way of _____________ life’s demands and problems.
Monozygotic twins will have the same personality.
Problem behaviors typically involve family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precocious sexuality and early pregnancy, educational underachievement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment.
The more crime a person commits, the less likely he or she is to suffer premature death.
Most young criminals desist and do not become adult offenders.
The basic premise of ___________ theory is that there is more than one path to crime and more that one class of offender.
Life course theory
Which of the following is NOT an element of impulsivity?