What do some other people believe about this topic?

Requirements:

· MLA format

· Length: 5-7 pages, typed, double-spaced (not including Works Cited page)

· 12-point font (New Times Roman or Arial)

· Use a minimum of 5 sources.

· At least two sources must come from the text, although more may be used.

· At least three sources must come from outside the text, although more may be used. An outside source may be an article, essay, book, short story, poem, song, play, film, editorial cartoon, commercial ad, or art selection.

Essay #4: Synthesizing Sources for an Argument

Assignment:

Option 1—Textbook Issue

For the fourth essay, write an original argument about a theme found in two works of your choice from our textbook.

Option 2—Cultural Issue

For the fourth essay, write an original argument about a specific issue or problem relevant to a cultural community, such as Kurds, Jamaican, Generation X, Hippies, Vegetarians, Hip-Hop, Gothic, Internet Chatters, Oklahomans, Republicans, Democrats, Geeks, Gay, Lesbian, Heterosexual, Muslim, Jew, Christian, Buddhist, etc.

Option 3—Global Issue

For the fourth essay, write an original argument about a specific issue or problem relevant to a global issue, such as war, peace, hunger, education, etc. These are large issues and must be narrowed down to a specific focus.

The overall purpose is to bring together, or synthesize, at least two works of literature expressing the specific issue to help support an original thesis that states your argument. You will need to not only rely on the literature as evidence to support your argument, but to also incorporate a minimum of three additional outside sources that contribute to your view and emphasize the issue presented in your argument. The overall purpose is to bring together, or synthesize, at least two works dealing with similar issues to help support an original thesis that states your argument. This must be a debatable issue/topic.

Objectives:

To demonstrate your ability to write a unified, coherent, and logically organized essay that is an argument.

To integrate or synthesize the ideas from multiple sources and multiple types of sources.

To articulate a clear position on a complex issue.

To argue the position with reasonable evidence from multiple sources and multiple types of sources.

To learn the value and necessity of compromise when approaching complex issues.

To think outside of binary oppositions.

To learn how to use the rhetorical triangle effectively and see how ethos, logos, and pathos interact.

To use quotations from multiple types of sources effectively and properly; this includes citing the quotations and typing a Works Cited page

To achieve a tone that is reasonable and academic

To recognize the pervasiveness of argument outside of traditional debate and critique an argument on academic (as opposed to emotional) grounds.

To analyze the rhetorical situation of an argument, such as the following:

the intended audience

the argument’s context (social, cultural, political, economic, religious, etc.)

the purpose of the work

To learn how to identify errors in reasoning, including faulty logic or rhetorical fallacies.

To utilize the writing process – inventing, writing, revising, and editing – from start to finish

To communicate with as few errors as possible in grammar, mechanics and usage.

Requirements:

· MLA format

· Length: 5-7 pages, typed, double-spaced (not including Works Cited page)

· 12-point font (New Times Roman or Arial)

· Use a minimum of 5 sources.

· At least two sources must come from the text, although more may be used.

· At least three sources must come from outside the text, although more may be used. An outside source may be an article, essay, book, short story, poem, song, play, film, editorial cartoon, commercial ad, or art selection.

· Include a minimum of 5 direct quotations.

· You must have participated in the invention process and peer criticism/rough draft discussions for your final essay submission to be accepted.

Organization:

The organizational pattern you use should be based on the type of argument you are presenting. In other words, which pattern is best suited to the issue/claim of your argument? You might consider the traditional argument form explained on pages 659-663 in your textbook. Also, you might consider organizing the argument by using the Rogerian form explained on pages 663-667 in your textbook. Finally, you might consider organizing the essay around a claim of policy, which is explained on pages 656-657.

Traditional Argument Organization:

· an issue/topic is introduced; make clear that there are at least two or more sides to the issue.

· a position is asserted as a thesis

· assertions/claims are made and supported with evidence (from the literature and outside sources)

· counterclaims/refutations are addressed

· conclusion broadly restates writer’s position; moves beyond specific claims; and synthesizes claims into position

Rogerian Argument Organization:

The introduction should accomplish the following tasks:
•Introduce the theme.
•Explain the relevance of this theme to your audience. The appeal to your audience’s ethos is important in this type of argument.
•As your thesis, reveal the issue in the form of a complex question instead of creating the traditional, authoritative thesis. (Remember that Rogerian argument seeks to dismantle difference and emotion.)

In the body of the essay, you should do the following:
•Begin with the opposite of what you originally believed about the topic when you first considered it. What do some other people believe about this topic?
•Find literature that exemplifies this attitude and offer appropriate, documented quotations. Remember to use an author’s full name the first time he or she is introduced.
•Show an understanding and appreciation of this argument.
•Do not resort to attacking this opinion, even if it is very different from your own.
•Only now should you explain the other side of the issue. This may be your original opinion, if your opinion has changed substantially.
•Cite literature that supports this attitude.
•Identify common ground between the two stances.
•Find a compromise between both attitudes.
•Provide evidence from additional outside resources to support the compromise.

The conclusion should accomplish the following tasks:
•Summarize your argument/compromise.
•Lead readers toward an agreement of the compromise.

Claim of Policy Organization:
•an issue/topic is introduced; make clear that there are at least two or more positions or solutions to resolve the issue.
•a position is asserted as a thesis
•assertions/claims are made and supported with evidence (from the literature and outside sources) (The assertions are typically solutions or policies to resolve the issue. Each solution or policy should be identified in separate paragraphs.)
•counterclaims/refutations/setbacks/weaknesses of the solutions are addressed
•conclusion broadly restates writer’s position and shows the claim of policy in action

· Include a minimum of 5 direct quotations.

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