The Story of the Sandwich: Identify the 4 truths in the article and write a 3 sentence summary for each one. What was of particular interest to you in the article and why ( 4 sentences). Read the FDA article ‘Gluten free’ now means what it says.

1. The Story of the Sandwich

write a 3 paragraph (4 sentences each) summary of it.   Why did you pick this article (4 sentences)?

2 .read the article “The 4 Most Confusing Things About Sugar”. Identify the 4 truths in the article and write a 3 sentence summary for each one. What was of particular interest to you in the article and why ( 4 sentences). Read the FDA article ‘Gluten free’ now means what it says. Click here. Write a 4 sentence description of the section What is Gluten? and a 4 sentence summery of the section How Does FDA Define ‘Gluten-Free’?


The Story of the Sandwich

Would you believe that Americans eat more than 300 million sandwiches a day? That’s right, every day we consume about as many sandwiches as we have people to eat them. And why not? The sandwich might be the perfect food: portable, open to any interpretation and as simple or as elaborate as the mood permits. The sandwich has a long history, but it hasn’t always been as embraced in America as it is now. It’s hard to imagine, but the sandwich was once thought of as a symbol of a colonial past that most patriotic Americans wanted to forget.

The sandwich as we know it was popularized in England in 1762 by John Montagu, the 4th Earl of Sandwich. Legend has it, and most food historians agree, that Montagu had a substantial gambling problem that led him to spend hours on end at the card table. During a particularly long binge, he asked the house cook to bring him something he could eat without getting up from his seat, and the sandwich was born. Montagu enjoyed his meat and bread so much that he ate it constantly, and as the concoction grew popular in London society circles it also took on the Earl’s name.

Of course, John Montagu (or rather, his nameless cook) was hardly the first person to think of putting fillings between slices of bread. In fact, we know exactly where Montagu first got the idea for his creation. Montagu traveled abroad to the Mediterranean, where Turkish and Greek mezze platters were served. Dips, cheeses, and meats were all “sandwiched” between and on layers of bread. In all likelihood Montagu took inspiration from these when he sat at that card table.

Montagu’s creation took off immediately. Just a few months later, a man named Edward Gibbon mentioned the sandwich by name in a diary entry, writing that he’d seen “twenty or thirty of the first men of the kingdom” in a restaurant eating them. By the Revolutionary War, the sandwich was well established in England. You would expect American colonists to have taken to the sandwich as well, but there’s no early written record of them in the new country at all, until a sandwich recipe didn’t appear in an American cookbook until 1815.

Why would this creation go unsung in the nation for so long? It seems early American cooks tended to avoid culinary trends from their former ruling state. And the name “sandwich” itself comes from the British peerage system, something that most Americans wanted to forget. Once memory faded and the sandwich appeared, the most popular version wasn’t ham or turkey, but tongue!

Of course, most Americans today wouldn’t dream of a eating a tongue sandwich. But that’s ok, since we’ve come up with some pretty excellent sandwich ideas since then. That iconic New Orleans sandwich, the Po’ Boy, came about in the Great Depression during a streetcar worker strike. Two brothers, once streetcar operators themselves, owned a sandwich shop nearby, and promised to feed any down-on-his-luck striking worker for free. When a hungry striker walked into the shop, the clerks would yell, “Here comes another po’ boy,” and the name stuck. That school lunch staple, the Sloppy Joe, came about at around the same time, the innovation of a short order diner cooked named – you guessed it – Joe. And the Reuben, that decidedly un-Kosher treat of corned beef, Swiss cheese, and sauerkraut, appeared not in a New York City deli but in Omaha, Nebraska. Named after one of the participants in a weekly poker game that took place in a hotel, the creation really took off when the hotel owner featured it on the dinner menu. It later won a nationwide recipe contest, and the rest is history.


#   The 4 Most Confusing Things About Sugar



Nowadays, when people meet me and hear that   I’m a dietitian, the first thing they want to know is: What’s the deal with   sugar? No doubt, sugar is the diet villain du jour. You’ve probably seen some   scary headlines calling sugar toxic and pointing to it as the source of all   our health woes. But the real story is far more complex.

Sugar in large quantities is, in fact, a big threat to   your health. For years, experts have been saying that eating too much of any   food can up your diabetes risk because overeating leads to obesity, which is   the real culprit behind skyrocketing rates of the disease. But recent   research suggests that the sweet stuff may have a more direct impact: For   every additional 150 calories of added sugar downed per person per day, the   prevalence of diabetes rose by 1 percent, even after controlling for obesity,   physical activity and calories from other foods, according to a large study   looking at international data. When it comes to heart health, excess sugar is   also suspect. People who ate the most added sugar more than doubled their   risk of death from heart disease, a JAMA Internal Medicine study found.

Adding to the problem, sugar is hiding in many surprising   products, such as oatmeal and peanut butter, and confusing food labels make   it hard to know how much of it you’re getting. So what’s a girl to do?

10 Easy Ways to Slash Sugar from Your Diet

Before you swear off everything from ice cream to   strawberries, read my ground rules to satisfying your sweet tooth in the   safest way possible.


Truth #1: Some kinds are better than others

It’s key to know the difference between the two main types   of sugar.

Naturally occurring sugar is found in whole foods, such as   fruit, vegetables and dairy products. These foods tend to be better for you   because they deliver fiber (in the case of produce), as well as protein and   calcium (in dairy) and other important vitamins and minerals.

Added sugars are anything sweet put into a food for   flavor, from the sugar in store-bought ketchup to the honey you spoon into   your tea. (Yes, “natural” sweeteners count.) These sugars are   concentrated and mostly devoid of nutrients. Although honey, maple syrup and   the like have some healthful antioxidants and minerals, they still pack hefty   doses of sweetener per spoonful. This means you get a lot of pure sugar—and   calories—in a small portion, making it easy to go overboard and cause big   problems. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), increases in   sugar intake over the past four decades parallel our expanding waistlines,   and studies have connected added sugar, not the naturally occurring kind, to   heart disease and diabetes.

10 Coffee Drinks Worse Than a Candy Bar


Truth #2: You have to read labels carefully

A lot of packaged foods contain both naturally occurring   and added sugars. But the Nutrition Facts label lumps both kinds together,   giving you one combined total. Last year, the FDA proposed separating the two   to make it clearer how much of each type you’re getting, but until those   changes take effect, the easiest way to tell if sugar has been added is to   scan the actual ingredients list. If you see sugar grams but no sweeteners   listed, then none were added. If you do see any type of sweetener—including   brown sugar, cane juice, corn syrup, maltose or fructose—make sure it’s not   the first thing listed. By law, ingredients must be in descending order of   weight, so the higher up the added sugar, the more there is per bite. Also   check for multiple types of sugar, which is a sneaky way food companies make   something supersweet without telegraphing it on the ingredients list.

16 Most Misleading Food Labels

But you can automatically slash your sugar load by   ditching sweetened drinks, eating mostly whole foods instead of sugary snacks   and buying more unsweetened versions of packaged foods.


Truth #3: The limits are low but doable


According to the AHA, women should have no more than 100   calories of added sugar per day (about 6 teaspoons). Yet the average woman   gets 18 teaspoons a day! Most of our added sugar comes from sweetened drinks   and packaged foods, and the Nutrition Facts label lists sugar in grams, not   calories or teaspoons, so it’s easy to lose track. Fortunately, there’s a   simple formula for counting up sugar from any source: Just remember that 1   teaspoon equals about 4 grams of added sugar. So if you add a teaspoon to your   morning joe and later have a chocolate protein bar with 12 grams (3   teaspoons) of sugar, you have 2 teaspoons (8 grams) left for the day.


Truth #4: Natural doesn’t mean free-for-all

Hardly any of us are inhaling too many servings of whole   fruits and vegetables. But juices, smoothies and dried fruits are another   story. Recently, a client was confused when I pointed out that her 15-ounce   bottle of green juice contained more than 53 grams of sugar (and nearly 270   calories!). It’s all fruits and veggies, she reasoned, so why care? One   problem when you gulp your produce is that you’re getting natural sugar   without fiber (and it’s fiber in fruit that slows down digestion and gives   your body time to metabolize the sugar). As a result, you store the excess   calories as fat. Fiber also prevents blood sugar spikes that can raise your   risk of type 2 diabetes.

Dried fruit can be tricky, too; without water, the natural   sugars become more concentrated. You can still enjoy it, but right-size your   portion: One cup of fresh fruit equals 1/2 cup of 100 percent juice equals   1/4 cup of unsweetened dried fruit. Now you’re in control of your sugar   calories.

Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, is Health’s contributing nutrition   editor, and privately counsels clients in New York, Los Angeles, and long   distance. Cynthia is currently the sports nutrition consultant to the New   York Rangers NHL team and the Tampa Bay Rays MLB team, and is board certified   as a specialist in sports dietetics.


# Gluten-Free’ Now Means What It Says

This gluten-free banana bread was made with almond flour instead of regular flour. Plain nuts are also a

In August 2013, the Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule that defined what characteristics a food has to have to bear a label that proclaims it “gluten-free.” The rule also holds foods labeled “without gluten,” “free of gluten,” and “no gluten” to the same standard.

Manufacturers had one year to bring their labels into compliance. As of August 5, 2014, any food product bearing a gluten-free claim labeled on or after this date must meet the rule’s requirements.

This rule was welcomed by advocates for people with celiac disease, who face potentially life-threatening illnesses if they eat the gluten found in breads, cakes, cereals, pastas and many other foods.

Andrea Levario, executive director of the American Celiac Disease Alliance, notes that there is no cure for celiac disease and the only way to manage the disease is dietary—not eating gluten. Without a standardized definition of “gluten-free,” these consumers could never really be sure if their body would tolerate a food with that label, she adds.

As one of the criteria for using the claim “gluten-free,” FDA set a gluten limit of less than 20 ppm (parts per million) in foods that carry this label. This is the lowest level that can be consistently detected in foods using valid scientific analytical tools. Also, most people with celiac disease can tolerate foods with very small amounts of gluten. This level is consistent with those set by other countries and international bodies that set food safety standards.

“This standard ’gluten-free’ definition eliminates uncertainty about how food producers label their products. People with celiac disease can rest assured that foods labeled ‘gluten-free’ meet a clear standard established and enforced by FDA,” says Felicia Billingslea, director of FDA’s division of food labeling and standards.

back to top

What Is Gluten?

Gluten is a mixture of proteins that occur naturally in wheat, rye, barley and crossbreeds of these grains.

As many as 3 million people in the United States have celiac disease. It occurs when the body’s natural defense system reacts to gluten by attacking the lining of the small intestine. Without a healthy intestinal lining, the body cannot absorb the nutrients it needs. Delayed growth and nutrient deficiencies can result and may lead to conditions such as anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells) and osteoporosis, a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. Other serious health problems may include diabetes, autoimmune thyroid disease and intestinal cancers.

Before the rule there were no federal standards or definitions for the food industry to use in labeling products “gluten-free.” An estimated 5 percent of foods formerly labeled “gluten-free” contained 20 ppm or more of gluten.

back to top

How Does FDA Define ‘Gluten-Free’?

In addition to limiting the unavoidable presence of gluten to less than 20 ppm, FDA now allows manufacturers to label a food “gluten-free” if the food does not contain any of the following:

  • an      ingredient that is any type of wheat, rye, barley, or crossbreeds of these      grains
  • an      ingredient derived from these grains and that has not been processed to      remove gluten
  • an      ingredient derived from these grains and that has been processed to remove      gluten, if it results in the food containing 20 or more parts per million      (ppm) gluten

Foods such as bottled spring water, fruits and vegetables, and eggs can also be labeled “gluten-free” if they inherently don’t have any gluten.

Under the final rule, a food label that bears the claim “gluten-free,” as well as the claims “free of gluten,” “without gluten,” and “no gluten,” but fails to meet the requirements of the rule is considered misbranded and subject to regulatory action by FDA.

According to Felicia Billingslea, director of FDA’s division of food labeling and standards, consumers should know that some foods labeled “gluten free” that are in the marketplace may have been labeled before the rule’s compliance date of August 5.

Some of these foods, like pasta, have a longer shelf life and may legally remain on the shelves a little bit longer. Therefore, it is possible that stores may still be selling some foods that are labeled “gluten-free” produced before the compliance date of the final rule.

If consumers have any doubts about a product’s ingredients and whether or not the product is gluten-free, they should contact the manufacturer or check its website for more information.

back to top

What About in Restaurants?

Some restaurants use the term “gluten-free” in their menus. The gluten-free final rule applies to packaged foods, which may be sold in some retail and food-service establishments such as some carry-out restaurants. However, given the public health significance of “gluten-free” labeling, restaurants making a gluten-free claim on their menus should be consistent with FDA’s definition.

State and local governments play an important role in oversight of restaurants. FDA will work with partners in state and local governments with respect to gluten-free labeling in restaurants.

Billingslea suggests that consumers who are concerned about gluten-free claims in restaurants ask the following questions when ordering foods described as gluten-free:

  • What      does the restaurant mean by the term “gluten free?”
  • What      ingredients are used in this item?
  • How is      the item prepared?

“With the new FDA gluten-free regulations now being enforced, restaurants will be well-served to ensure they are meeting the FDA-defined claim,” said Joy Dubost, Ph.D., R.D., Senior Director of Nutrition, National Restaurant Association. “We will continue to work with restaurant operators and chefs to assist and ensure a favorable dining experience for consumers.”

This article appears on FDA’s Consumer Updates page, which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products.

Type of paper Academic level Subject area
Number of pages Paper urgency Cost per page: