Some common physical methods for separating the components of a mixture include?

Most substances found in nature, and many prepared in the laboratory, are impure; that
is, they are a part of a mixture. One goal of chemical research is to devise methods to
identify and remove impurities from the chemical of interest.
A mixture is a physical combination of two or more pure substances wherein each
substance retains its own chemical identity. For example, each component in a sodium
chloridewater mixture possesses the same chemical properties as in the pure state:
Water consists of H2O molecules, and sodium chloride is sodium ions, Na+, and chloride
ions, Cl.
The method chosen for separating a mixture is based on the differences in the
chemical and/or physical properties of the components of the mixture. Some common
physical methods for separating the components of a mixture include:
Filtration: removing a solid substance from a liquid by passing the suspension
through a filter (see Techniques 11BE and Experiment 3 for details).
Distillation: vaporizing a liquid from a solid (or another liquid) and condensing
the vapor (see margin photo).
Crystallization: forming a crystalline solid by decreasing its solubility by
cooling the solution, evaporating the solvent, or adding a solvent in which the
substance is less soluble (see Experiments 15 and 19).
Extraction: removing a substance from a solid or liquid mixture by adding a
solvent in which the substance is more soluble (see Experiment 11).

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