Intelligence Cycle

Question One

Intelligence is the capability to understand reason and learn the knowledge behind the occurring events and circumstances. Intelligence is gathered from information that is collected, processed, and analyzed. Intelligence is usually information of great importance related to a certain person or subject one has great interest in. This is interest to understand the intricacies of the person or organization and use that information to carry out a mission or a duty. Intelligence mainly exposes an individual weakness that an enemy can use to bring down an individual or organization. This is information that has a great weight and ability to ruin an individual or organization

Question Two

An intelligence cycle is a process, which evaluates our work correctly by taking it through a system of checks and balances. It mainly involves processing raw information into finished intelligence for consumers, law enforcement executives, patrol officers, investigators, and policymakers. It drives the day-to-day activities in an intelligence community. The cycle is able to measure the level of our understanding based on the task performed. The steps in an intelligence cycle are related and this is the reason behind the repetitive cycle. The intelligence cycle involves several important steps. These include Planning and direction, Collection, Analysis and processing, Dissemination, and Assessment

  • During the step of planning and direction, plans are made on what to do and how to do it. A certain direction of which to follow is chosen to get the job done. Any information known concerning the information is outlined, and so is any that needs to be found out. Discussion on the ways to gather the required intelligence information is held during this stage of the intelligence cycle. The planning and direction cycle is also known as the beginning and end of the intelligence cycle. A beginning because of the sketching of the specific collection requirements and due to the finished intelligence, which is used in policy decision making that call for new requirements. The whole process depends upon the guidance from the public officials. Consumers from a wide variety of levels may request for intelligence. These levels range from the federal to the state, up to and including the local.
  • Then follows the collection process: The process of gathering the required raw information necessary for the production of the finished intelligence is referred to as collection. For quality and reliable results, collection should be planned, focused, and directed. Sources of such information include books, periodicals, magazine articles, newspapers, and even foreign broadcasts. There are secret sources of information too, known to be covertly collected. Such information is collected from hidden cameras and listening devices or from agents abroad. The required raw information can also be collected technically from electronics and satellite photography, which play an important role in the modern intelligence. These space-age technologies provide direct support to the military forces and control agreements. Some sources of information are confidential and are collected from investigations carried out by detectives, citizens who report crimes and persons who take part in the criminal activities. To gather such information, certain methods are implemented. They include undercover work, interviews, electrical and physical surveillance.
  • The next important stage is processing involves the conversion of all collected raw information into a form that can be used by analysts. This may involve a wide range of activities from the translation of certain documents to the interpretation of a satellite photo. It also involves decryption and reduction of data. Through information management, the data is sorted, organized, and indexed into a file that can be retrieved for future use. The process is simplified by the acts of entry of the data into the computer and the collation of files. An understanding of the consumers’ needs, the collection plan, the type of information being processed and the analytic strategies are essential in effective processing and collation.
  • Then analysis is undertaken: The process by which all basic information is converted into finished intelligence is known as analysis and production. All available data, which is often contradictory and fragmentary, is integrated, evaluated, and analyzed in order to prepare intelligence products. Analysis gives raw information a lot of meaning since analysts consider if the information provided is reliable, valid, timely, and relevant.  The data is integrated into a coherent whole, placed in its context, and utilized in the production of the finished intelligence. The finished intelligence therefore includes the judgment and assessment of the information and its implications to the consumer. The units involved in the intelligence and analysis are devoted to provide strategic intelligence to the policymakers. To be able to provide operational and tactical intelligence to continuing investigations for law enforcement needs, monitoring of the current criminal and non-criminal events is carried out. They are able to do this by monitoring events, warning decision makers on threats and forecasting development. The subjects involved may be of different context military, political, economic, scientific, and biographic and may involve different regions, personalities, and problems. Among the elements examined in the finished intelligence, are capability, events, and future trends. The intelligence and analysis units produce numerous written reports, which may be as brief as one page or less and may produce lengthy studies. The reports may involve the current intelligence and the long-range assessments.  Finished intelligence is also presented in oral briefing and there is the drafting of the National Intelligence estimates, which clearly reflect on the collective judgment of the intelligence community.
  • The next steps of the intelligence cycle are includes Dissemination. Dissemination is the distribution of the finished intelligence to the consumers. Further, one has to evaluate, i.e. assess the intelligence of the consumer. This refers to the initial consumers who requested for the intelligence requirements. These consumers are then able to take action or make decisions based on the intelligence provided. This step provides an opportunity for feedback that helps to assess the intelligence presented to the consumer. Levying of more information requirements may be based on the decisions, actions, and feedback thus triggering the intelligence cycle once again.
  • The last step is the assessment: This step involves the evaluation of various forms of intelligence that have used to avail the information required. This allows the organization or the people involved to test the efficiency of the intelligence source and process they have followed to disseminate the intelligence. Moreover, is the development of forecasts of behavior or suggested courses of achievement to the leadership of a business, based on a broad range of offered information sources, which both coverts and averts. Assessments are formulated in response to necessities declared by the leadership to put in the picture of decision-making. This process may perhaps be done on behalf of a military, state, or commercial organization with the abundant information present.


Question Three

There are several major states involved in the intelligence community. The intelligence community has agencies, which have various responsibilities. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is one of the agencies developing the necessary collecting systems required to carry out counter intelligence and foreign intelligence. It is also responsible for conducting counter terrorist activities related to foreign intelligence. These activities are risky especially during peace times and should be avoided except when urgent.

  • Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) has a major responsibility of conducting counter intelligence activities, intelligence and counter terrorism activities in the United States. The National Security Service directs these activities.
  • Another agency under the Intelligence Community is the National Security Agency (NSA) which has a major responsibility  of  providing centralized coordination, direction and performance of highly specialized operations  to ensure the governments are protected and foreign communication are intelligence sources.
  • Air Force Intelligence conducts the collection, processing, and analysis of dissemination activities sufficient to meet the needs of the national and worldwide Air Force. The Department of Energy (DOE) is yet another major agency in the Intelligence Community and is responsible for openly collecting the economic, political, and technical information concerning foreign matters.
  • Marine Corps Intelligence provides broad and responsive worldwide support for all Marine Corps worldwide. The Department Homeland Security prevents terrorist’s attacks in the United States and minimizes the damages that occur from those attacks that do occur.

Question Four

Boston Bombing

There are a few instances of intelligence in practice. To begin with, there is the Boston Bombing, which planned and executed by two suspects. The FBI has hugely tried to find out what was behind the scene that was conducted by the two suspects, i.e. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev and Tamarlan. Tsarnaev, 19, and his brother, 26-year-old Tamerlan and his younger brother are perhaps perceived to have planted the two backpack bombs near the finish line of Monday’s Boston Marathon that killed about three people. Moreover, the attack caused many injuries to very man individuals. The FBI has tried to obtain information by using various techniques such as law enforcement and acquiring information from Boston residents on how about the suspects. The U.S intelligence agencies and the FBI are hugely advancing on finding more sufficient evidence so that they can work counter such actions in the future. The FBI used surveillance devices to capture the entire information of what was happening day-in-day-out.  The social media played a crucial role in finding the whereabouts of the two suspects. The other means that were put in place were interviewing the suspect’s friends and his fellow students. Therefore, the combination of intelligence agencies and the FBI with the inclusion of the other factors led to the capture of the two suspects. Nevertheless, The FBI is even going further to obtain the entire information so that they can prevent future occurrence of such incidence. Therefore, based on this article, one can perhaps say that intelligence is a critical factor that has contributed to good and appropriate operation of the day-to-day activities. The FBI planned on how they were going to execute the case about the bombings, they then collected the information form the public and the camera footages that were available this then led them to processing the information and followed that up by releasing the information and finally they were able to get the trail that led them to the bombers.

Osama Bin Laden

He was the founder of the outlawed group known as al-Qaeda. A U.S agency known as Central Intelligence Agency and its intelligence society efforts led to his capture. The knowhow in his capture began by putting Abbottabad operation, which started with a fragment of information unearthed. Moreover, this created consistent investigation and multiplatform surveillance that was conducted by the U.S. The CIA tried to identify his courier that used to conceal of his location from top commanders and al-Qaeda foot soldiers. Nevertheless, Osama was known to use mobile phones after the U.S had established missiles on his locations in Sudan and Afghanistan. This is evident as they tracked his satellite associate phone. In addition, the CIA and the FBI used intelligence reports and surveillance photos to identify his occupant of the Abbottabad compound. The CIA found that the compound was customized to hide someone of importance who seemed to be Osama. The combination of CIA with the inclusion of United States Agencies and the U.S department of defense gathered sufficient information to capture and kill Osama. The CIA went and settled in Abbottabad whereby they acquired a lot of information from the site, which was among other techniques that were used. In addition, the United States used their geospatial agencies that aided Joint Special Operation Command to set mission simulators for the pilots. They analyzed the drone data during the entire day-in-day-out. The NGA fashioned three-dimensional making of the house, fashioned schedules relating inhabited traffic outline and evaluated the height, gender, and height of the inhabitants of the compound. Other practices that were used include the Operation Neptune Spear, planning, making decisions, and executing the operations. Therefore, these factors contributed to the death of Osama. Therefore, based on this article, one can perhaps say that intelligence is a critical factor that has contributed to good and appropriate operation of the day-to-day activities.

The FBI received information about a courier that resided in a certain compound in Pakistan, they planned on how they were going to follow up on the case, they tracked the courier and from the appearance of the compound and the way it was secured they were able to process that information and concl;ude that a high profile target was residing in that compound. They released that information to other law enforcement agencies and finally struck killing Osama.

Intelligence on Saddam Hussein Capture

He was a dictator of Iraq and terrorized his country mate. The U.S military forces used their intelligence to gather information of his whereabouts. They used their special intelligence analysts, and they found his footprints in various countries. They carried the operation bravely with a lot of precision in order to capture Saddam. The U.S intelligence forces used thirty-eight weeks to capture this man. It used its weaponry and the latest technology, which abundant human intelligence backed to capture this man. Saddam used a lot of his intelligence in that it was not easy to tell of his whereabouts, as he could not stay at any place twice. Therefore, the U.S used a lot of bombing, which failed. The U.S intelligence conducted a lot of operation that failed to bear fruit. CIA followed his footsteps of his location and found that he was coordinating with the U.S diplomats. The CIA used his superb forces and paramilitary to track him where they were concerned on the clan and family ties. Moreover, the U.S troops introduced in the area played significant roles in his arrest. As time passed, CIA began to ask for information from his distant friends who opposed his dictatorship. Moreover, the infrared surveillance and photographic were taken, but he was spotted. The U.S military used the friends who gave them the idea of the whereabouts of Saddam. Finally, he was caught in his spider hole. Therefore, one can perhaps say that human intelligence was the key factor that led to his capture. Therefore, based on this article, one can perhaps say that intelligence is a critical factor that has contributed to good and appropriate operation of the day-to-day activities.

Intelligence on Gaddafi killing

According to Libyan sources, the French intelligence agents killed Gaddafi, which acted under the French Government orders. Armed fighters of the Libyan National Liberation Army confined him. This happened after NATO aircraft bombed his bands. Based on the Libyan intelligence, a source quoted that the French president at that time, Nicolas Sarkozy, ordered his intelligence to get of the whereabouts of Gaddafi and kill him. Moreover, the Libyan intelligence says that he ordered this after Gaddafi has lamented that he threatened to expose his contended financial transactions with Sarkozy. These refer to relentless rumors that the Gaddafi had contributed millions of dollars to Sarkozy 2007 General election battle. Therefore, based on this article, one can perhaps say that intelligence is a critical factor that has contributed to good and appropriate operation of the day-to-day activities. The French could not let information of their transactions with Gaddafi get out, which comprised torture of civilians by DGSE agents. Moreover, he accurately knew too much and it would have almost certainly let down the French authority if he had perhaps been queried in a court setting. It is noteworthy that the French intelligence reduced the killings of people in the country. Therefore, relating intelligence and the concept above, one can perhaps say that intelligence is an essential vice that should be in every human being for good survival. Additionally, it also eases the way of living. They were able to plan on the attack using the information that had acquired, they processed the information to ascertain its credibility and finally released it to other agencies that planned and executed the attack.

Intelligence on Bilaal Al-Berjawi Killing

Bilaal Al-Berjawi was born in Lebanon and raised up in the United Kingdom. He was killed by a drone strike in Mogadishu outskirts. He was a hugely respected al-Qaeda leader. The CIA acquired a lot of information from the site, which was among other techniques that were used. In addition, the United States used their geospatial agencies that aided Joint Special Operation Command to set mission simulators for the pilots. The American-launched missiles hit his fleet of vehicles as they gaggled south of Mogadishu, which is the Somali capital. According to the head of intelligence in Kenya, this man has been fighting alongside Somalia’s al-Shabaab Islamists. In precise, one can say that the U.S used its military intelligence to get of the whereabouts of this man. The use of drones aided very hugely to his death. Therefore, this protected the death of the innocent residents. The relationship of this article and the concept discussed in the entire course shows that human intelligence has played a critical part in the society. The improvement of technology has increased and eased ways on how to capture criminals. Finally, one would recommend the advancing technology to carry out research and essential information.

The intelligence cycle is able to easily coordinate and prioritize on intelligence information by delegating the duties to various major agencies, which carry out the intelligence cycle steps. The level of collaboration is enhanced by the intelligence priorities, which reduce the unnecessary duplication of effort and information. The most important priority of to provide its customers with the best custom tailored intelligence information which is reliable parallel and up to date with the customers’ needs. They are able to do this by proper interaction during the collection stage, which involves the evaluation and analysis of the information collected. With the submission of high standard information to the consumers, the consumers can meet good decisions. This way the intelligence cycle is continuous.


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