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Explain how the Muslim conquests between 600-900 CE changed Western Europe?
What was the first information technology?
How were spectator sports important in the Roman Empire?
It created a culture based on gambling
It allowed Roman engineers to practice making bigger and better structures
It provided a way to keep people happy and distracted
Sports were central to religious worship
In what ways did the Hindu, Buddhist, and Confucian belief systems prevent exploration and conquest by powerful Chinese and Indian societies?
These religions did not believe in money
They put little emphasis on conquest or conversion
Disruption by Huns and other tribes kept their focus internal
The west had already explored the world
How did Roman “democracy” during the Republic, and Athenian “democracy” differ?
Athenians let all citizens vote while Rome let had Senators to represent the people.
Roman government was built on the military while Athens was built on philosophy
Athenians gave citizens a vote on laws but Roman laws were made by the Consuls.
Since Rome borrowed most of Greek thoughts and philosophy, both governments were largely the same.
What made the ancient civilization of the Egyptians so stable?
Their religion gave the Egyptians a system of control
The Nile River valley is surrounded by oceans and desert
They maintained a powerful army at all times
They had very little trade with the outside world
What was the difference between the Mongol and the Muslim contributions to western society? What are some examples?
Why did the ancient civilization of the Indus Valley invent the “caste system”?
To separate people between pure Indians and other groups
To ensure that people were always under control
The Hindu religion demanded it
It was devised under the influence of the Greeks
What were the two largest effects of the Neolithic Revolution on early societies?
Religion and Warfare
Cities and Trade
Population Growth and New Social Roles
Philosophy and Roads
Why was the movement of Greek art from idealism to realism important to Western individualism?
It depicted people and events as unique
It made art more believable
The Athenians made it law through democratic voting
It was influenced by outside cultures
What was the Buddhist and Hindu concept of “Karma”?
The thought that “what goes around, comes around”
The never-ending cycle of birth and rebirth
That all actions must be reconciled until all was in balance
The concept of civil justice
What were “the Four Vedas”?
A set of four beliefs that were critical to Hinduism
A set of four oral traditions, eventually written down, that form the Hindu religious texts
The primary four cities of the Indus Valley
The collective name of the four river based civilizations
What were the Caliphs? How did they determine the split in Muslim beliefs?
What was the Chinese concept of the “Mandate of Heaven”?
A politico-religious belief demonstrating that a person held rule because of the consent of heaven
The belief that China held a special place in heaven over any other peoples of the Earth.
The idea that the will of the people was written in heaven by the gods
A religious belief stating that people could not go to heaven unless they supported their ruler.
How did Judaism demonstrate a Western individualism in its belief?
Because it made everyone accountable to their king
It believed in a savior or “messiah”
It believed that God has a personal relationship with each person
It created a strong society where each person had a distinct role
What caused the rise of the first religions?
As a way to explain events an uncertain world
A method was needed to control people
Because beliefs in god are central to civilization
There needed to be a social rank between farmers and nobles
What made Judaism unique in the ancient world?
The Hebrews believed they were special
The building of temples
The belief in only one all-powerful God (monotheism)
The Ten Commandments
What were the advantages that India had in the creation of business systems?
Location, location, location,
Mathematics, location, and collectivist beliefs
Advanced shipbuilding and cartography
Use of western currency and ideas
How did Europeans respond to Islamic control of the “Holy Land” and what was the effect?
When Rome fell in 410 CE, it was only in the west; the eastern Roman Empire lasted for another 1,000 years. What were they called?
The Eastern Romans
The Orthodox Church
What two civilizations are best understood by dividing their history into ruling dynasties?
Maya and Rome
Greece and Rome
China and India
Egypt and China
How was writing important to the development of civilizations?
It allowed thoughts and records to be transmitted over a distance
It created more effective governments through writing the laws
It allowed for more stable economies with a means for counting taxes and trade
All of the above
What did the Greek and Roman Epicureans believe was the primary path to truth?
Harmony with Nature
Being less emotional
Every truth is true with evidence
What things did eastern religions have in common?
A focus on ethical behavior
Individual actions placed in context of the good of a group
Stable belief system that survived political changes
How did the “Black Plague” move from China through Asia to Europe?
What was Athenian Greek “Democracy”?
All citizens could vote on laws for the city-state
Citizens would vote for representatives that voted on laws for the city-state
A system of two factions that would debate and vote on laws for the city-state
A form of government where citizens distributed goods to other citizens
Why were the early civilizations in Mesopotamia so unstable?
They never mastered effective government
The religion was corrupt
Farming could not feed everyone
The land was not defensible against invasion
How did the Roman Empire ensure the spread and survival of Christianity and Judaism?
Persecution, tolerance, and dispersion throughout the empire
Making religious tolerance the law
Pitting Christians and Jews against each other
Forcing Christians and Jews to live in the countryside
What was the “censor” in early Chinese governments?
The person who made edits to royal laws and decrees
A philosopher that held rulers accountable to the “All-Under-Heaven”
A person who critiqued rulers to ensure their practices were good for society
The person who made sure that all music and art was within government rules
How did Western ideals spread from Greece throughout Asia
A – From the distribution of the writing of Greek philosophers
B – As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great
C – As a result of trade, communication, and colonization between Greece and the India, Asia, Africa, and Europe
Both B and C