How to construct the body paragraphs of your essay.

Immigration has been a hot topic in the United States for many years. From debates about how open the borders are to issues about citizenship and illegal immigration, this debate has people with views on both sides of the spectrum.

Book: Patterns for college Writing A Rhetorical Reader and Guide by Laurie G. Kirszner/Stephen R. Mandell
Pages 648-678 in the Patterns book explores various viewpoints on immigration with essays by Linda Chavez, Diane Feinstein, Herbert Meyer and Patrick Buchanan.Immigration has been a hot topic in the United States for many years. From debates about how open the boders are to issues about citizenship and illegal immigration, this debate has people with views on both sides of the spectrum.

Pages 648-678 in the Patterns book explores various viewpoints on immigration with essays by Linda Chavez, Diane Feinstein, Herbert Meyer and Patrick Buchanan.

In a 4-5 page essay utlitizing the sources in the book as well as one additional source (with the attached Journal only), develop your argument on the issue of immigration in the United States. Take a position and build your argument by using the essays from the authors listed above.

Note: This is one of the required resource book and only the journals information I uploaded..

In a 4-5 page essay
Basic rules:
In formal writing, essays must be written in the third person. Do not use “I”, “We”, “You” or any other personal references. Keep your writing sophisticated. Do not use slang. Refer to the following link for how to use quotations
Using citations:
Remember, your essay is your voice, your argument. The use of sources, whether as quotations or paraphrases, is meant to support your argument. They should not take the place of your argument. You do not have to cite general ideas. Parenthetical citations are for specific ideas you take from a source, whether you use quotations or paraphrase. The author’s last name and the page number you got the quote/idea from is enclosed in the parenthesis. For example: (Parsons 14). The only exception to using the author in the parenthetical citation is if you have already used the author’s name before the quotation. For example, if I wrote: In “Virtual Love,” Megan Daum describes how the Internet — since I have used her name already, I don’t have to bring it up in the parenthetical citation. I just insert the page number from where the quote is taken.

When you do use the words of someone else, you have to set up and introduce the source/quotation you are about to use. For example, let’s assume your topic sentence is about how the Internet has transformed society with the introduction of virtual communities that are just as robust as real communities. This topic sets up the possibility of bringing in Russ Parson’s “A Shared Sadness.” Similarly, you should think of which example from the text you could use while constructing your topic sentence.

The following is an example of a few body paragraphs from an essay and it also illustrates how to transition from your argument (topic sentence) to the source you will use as an example to illustrate and further your point:

1) The Internet has transformed society with the introduction of virtual communities that are just as robust as real communities. With the constant stress of day-to-day living, including five day – eight-hour work shifts, the real world may not offer many people the opportunities they need to find and express themselves individually. The Internet removes these hurdles. In the article “A Shared Sadness,” Russ Parsons underscores the positive aspect of virtual communities with a story about an Internet chat group that really came together for an individual who they had never actually met.

Breakdown of a full essay:
Paragraph 1: Introduction paragraph.
This paragraph introduces the main idea you want to explore. Get to the point. Beginning with the first sentence your goal is to set up your thesis, which is typically the last sentence of your introduction. Keep it simple. Do not bring in quotations and outside sources. Read the words that you are writing down aloud as if you were presenting it as a speech. There should be a consistent flow in your words, leading up to your thesis (your argument), which presents to a reader the direction you are headed in your paper. In this regard, you want to be absolutely clear in your intentions.
The thesis: The thesis clearly states what your purpose in the paper is. The thesis must be stated in your own words. Do not use other people words (quotations) to phrase your thesis. Do not phrase your thesis in the form of a question, as this would make it seem that you, as the author, are uncertain about what you are arguing about.

Paragraphs in the body of your paper:
Every paragraph will explore a different idea. Your paragraphs must begin with strong topic sentences that define your argument and what the paragraph is going to explore.

1) In the first paragraph above, the topic sentence is this:
“The Internet has transformed society with the introduction of virtual communities that are just as robust as real communities.” –The point of the paragraph is absolutely clear here. It also helps to set up the example that will illustrate this point, which is the Russ Parson’s article.
2) In the second paragraph, a brief summary of the article is presented. Note that select quotations are used to illustrate key ideas.
3) In the third paragraph, I expand on my own ideas in relation to the story. This is where I expand on my own argument in the paper.

Conclusion of the essay:
Your conclusion should be as well developed as your introduction. It should not bring up any new ideas, but rather close the door on the issues you have discussed, possibly responding to the main idea you brought up in the thesis.

Final note: The above is just an example to give you an idea of how to construct the body paragraphs of your essay. You don’t have to follow this pattern verbatim.

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