Engineering History Homework
True or False. Clearly mark each answer with a CAPITAL T or F. If your answer is not clearly marked as a T or F, I will count it as an incorrect
The origins of the quality movement can be traced back to medieval Europe, where craftsmen began organizing into groups called unions
During the period of European Guilds, skilled craftsmen controlled their own quality through pride of workmanship, and were responsible for
developing strict rules for product and service quality
During the middle of the 18
century, a French Gunsmith developed a system for making muskets to a standard pattern using interchangeable
George Washington brought the idea of making interchangeable parts to America.
In 1798, the US Government awarded Eli Whitney a 10year contract to supply 10,000 muskets to its armed forces.
During the 1880’s the United States adopted a new management approach developed by Frederick W. Taylor. Taylor’s goal was to increase
productivity by increasing the number of skilled craftsmen.
Taylor’s approach led to remarkable rises in productivity, but it had significant drawbacks: Workers were stripped of their power, and the new
emphasis on productivity had a negative effect on quality.
A “process” is defined as a group of activities that takes an input, adds value to it and provides an output.
Juran was a statistician for Bell Laboratories, who began to focus on controlling processes by focusing not only on the finished product but for
the processes that created it.
W Edwards Deming, a statistician with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Census Bureau, became a leader of the quality movement in
both Japan and the United States. In the 1950’s he took Statistical Process Control Techniques to Japan
Deming was known as a statistician and Quality guru, but he relied on the business leaders in Japan to do what made good business sense.
During World War II, quality was not present in the processes for the US consumers or for the US Military
The Quality of US Consumer based goods suffered during World War 2 but it was recovered by the early 1950’s
By the 1970s, U.S. industrial sectors such as automobiles and electronics in the US had caught up with the improvements made in Japan
In 1980, NBC aired a special “If Japan can, Why Can’t We” – How Deming Helped Japan.
In business, you must have balance in goals across and between departments
In any business, the most important factor is the number of customers you have and that they keep returning to you for products and services
One of the primary problems with versions of ISO 9000 prior to the 2000 version, was that it was elemental based and not process oriented
ISO 9000 is a good platform or basis for a quality system for most organizations but it is not a comprehensive business performance
ISO 9000 initially was made of a list of 25 elements that covered the basic component processes of any business.
Product Realization is the process of getting the feedback from the customer regarding their perception of your products usefulness
A Registrar is a person within your company who communicates with the auditors and represents the company being audited
Auditors for the ISO 9000 System are experts in quality and systems and do not need to understand technologies of the business they audit
When you are cited with a “Finding” during an audit, you do not need to submit objective evidence of making improvements to that item
because it is basically a suggested improvement opportunity.
With ISO 9000, internal audits are important, but the findings seen in an external audit are much more important.
Reliability Engineering focuses on largely on costs, while Safety Engineering focuses on Risks
Saying there is a problem when there isn’t is better than saying there is not a problem when there is one present.
The two primary approaches to Maintainability are time based and cost based.
The three elements for calculating risk are Severity, Detection, and Cost.
The three primary components of reliability are specified tasks, specified conditions, and specified time.
Warranty is a totally separate field of expertise than that of Reliability.
Reliability studies do not consider the capability of switching devices for redundant systems because they are considered to be ancillary.
The reliability of a parallel system is only as strong as its weakest link
FMEA stands for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
RPN stands for Risk Priority Number
A Risk Priority Number is comprised of a rating of Occurrence, Severity, and Cost
The primary governing body for Safety in the United States is OSHA
OSHA stands for Organizational Safety and Health Administration
PPE stands for Professional Protective Equipment
Material Safety Data Sheets are not just for extremely dangerous material, but is also for common cleaning items like Clorox and Ajax