Discuss the results, major findings, any anomalies.



Females prefer men as mates with deeper pitched voices over men with higher pitched voices.

A couple points to keep in mind:

•  Use active voice over passive voice: “We did this…” reads better than “This was done…”

•  Correct grammar and spelling are important, so proofread!


  • What patterns did you find?  Write what were the major trends.
  • No interpretations – Be concise!
  • Use graphs (or tables) to represent findings [see Figures section below]
  • Do NOT “throw out” or ignore results
  • Do NOT present the same data in more than one way
  • Do NOT present raw data. The reader should not be able to tell how each of the 100 people you surveyed answered your questions. Remember we care about the population as a whole.


  • You can include the figures and/or tables in the Results section with the text or at the end of the document.
  • Figures and tables need fully explanatory captions of what is being displayed: below for figures, above for tables.
  • Numbering of figures and tables starts at 1 and continues in consecutive order, based on appearance of reference in your paper’s text
    • Figures and tables have separate sets of numbering
  • Only include figures/tables that you refer to in text – if you’re including a figure/table, you need to talk about it in your text.
  • How to refer to a figure/table within the text: “X appears twice as often as Y (Figure 1).”
    •  NOT “See Figure 1.”, “Figure 1 shows something.”, etc.

Discussion: specific → general

  • Start by addressing the original hypotheses: supported or refuted?
    • Do NOT say “prove” – you cannot prove anything with one study.
    • It is OK if your hypothesis was refuted. There is no point to conducting an experiment if we always expect to be right!
  • Discuss the results, major findings, any anomalies…
    • Provide biological explanation of all results. Use the literature to support your ideas.
    • Discussion should tie back to introduction. Do not be afraid to revisit the topics you wrote about in your introduction.
  • Problems with your study?  How might these have affected the interpretation of the results?  How might the study be improved?
  • How do your results compare with other studies?  What did you do similarly/differently?
    • Refer to the studies brought up in the introduction
    • Assume your findings are just as valid as theirs
  • What future research can be done?  Why do your findings matter (big picture)?

Literature Cited:

  • At least 2 journal articles are required in your citations.
  • Reports with more citations tend to do much better.
  • Only include citations here that are actually cited in your paper’s text.
  • Citations should include:

Last name, first initial. Year published. Title of article. Journal title. Volume number: page numbers.

  • When citing within the text of the report: “Female birds tend to prefer a male that has brightly colored feathers (Seamus 2009).”


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