Develop research works the other way , moving from specific observation to broader generalization & theories.

Research proposal including :::

Objectives :::

1- introduction
2- Literature Review
3- Research Methodology
4- Finding & Analysis
5- Conclusion & Recommendations
6- Biography References

– Start in general ——-> then focus

– who . What . When. Where. Why.

– must be clearly formulated.

– Questionnaire.

– must be use internet web sites. :: 1- Scholar (. Choose time )
2- My Athens. ( for research )
3- British Library ( for reference )

A= In the { Literature } ( stage 2 ) :
– the importance & purpose of the literature review.
– what you need to include when writing your critical review.
– Relevance value & sufficiency of the literature found.

** Purpose of Literature Review ::: 1- Deductive. 2- inductive : Data —-> Analysis

B= Content :::
– Key Academic Theories.
– Demonstrate your knowledge is up to date.
– Using clear referencing.

C= Evaluating Content of your Literature Review. ::
– Covered related clearly
– most relevant & significant theories of recognized experts.

D= Critical.

E= Structure of Critical Literature Review ::: ( very very important ) ::

1- introduction Context : what you are going to say
2- Sub- heading :: ~ outlining main theories relevant to project ( Text books)
~ start with general & get more specific ( Journals)
3- Conclusion :: sum up what has been said clearly.
4- Result :: ~ Forms questions used together data
~ Justifies concepts used analysis.

Tips::

– read the original
– find critical views
– what are latest developments
– has anybody applied the theory in a similar situation “?
– has anybody worked with a different theory in a similar situation ?

– Be analytical

– NOT to summaries all Literature on the topic.
– NOT to write everything you know about the subject.
– NOT list a string of authors quoting extensively
-NOT be Descriptive.
– NOT Critiquing a Research Article : { Conceptualisation / Theoretical Framework / Research Design . Is reliability & validity ??

Key Words :::

Positivism. Interpretivism Deductive. Inductive. Quality. Quantity.

* Deductive : develop research works from the more general to the more specific. ( Top- Down) approach.

* Inductive : in develop research works the other way , moving from specific observation to broader generalization & theories. ( Bottom – up ) approach.

********** ( should be written as diagram ) :-

Theory. Observation
< Deductive > |. |
Hypothesis. < Inductive > Pattern
|. |
Observation Tentative Hypothesis
|. |
Confirmation Theory

— Common Data collection methods ::
1- Survey. 2- Interviews. 3- Documentary Analysis. 4- Focus group

In the END ::: Further Research ( Future Work)

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