Describe the nucleus, also include a description of the nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromosomes, DNA, and nucleolus.

Please answer the following questions in a 200-word response minimum. Try your best to reference the text I will message you privately for how to access the text book. Or you can access it at this link (it may take some time to load):

 

  1. From your assigned readings you should learn that one organelle whose function is vital to the cell is the nucleus, which has been referred to by some as the master organelle.

Describe the nucleus, also include a description of the nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromosomes, DNA, and nucleolus.

 

  1. The integrity of the plasma membrane (cell membrane) is a critical for cell survival. Describe the structure of the plasma membrane.  List the two main types of molecules which reside in plasma membrane and include their functions.

 

  1. Re: Ch. 6: In this chapter you will read about the bioenergetics of the cell, i.e, the metabolic pathways which are used to create cellular energy (adenosine triphosphate).

 

Describe the functional relationship between the three types of metabolic processes, glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport system.

 

  1. Re: Ch. 7: Based upon your assigned readings, compose a brief description of the light-dependent (Photosystem II) and light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle, Photosystem I).

**Note that the photosystems were named according to when they were discovered not when they occur during photosynthesis.

 

  1. THERE WILL BE A 5TH QUESTION IN A FEW DAY AND I WILL MESSAGE YOU PRIVATELY THE QUESTION- ESSAYS GURU

 

 

Please participate (respond) to the classmates answers with POSITIVE notable and educational input. (200 word minimum Reponses)

 

  1. Jeff: Class,

It is true that the one organelle whose function is vital to all cells is the nucleus.  It has been referred to as the master organelle and even the command center of the cell (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ). The nucleus houses the plans for the process and construction of the cell via the cell’s DNA and it also manipulates the activity of the cells by controlling protein synthesis (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).  Quite simply if the cell was a human or animals body, the nucleus would be the brain.  Just like our brains store information and direct our organs to work in harmony. DNA is the molecule that contains the genetic codes for organisms.  It can store hereditary information for cells and the organism itself.  The DNA code is very complex and long, however it all fits nicely inside each cell’s nucleus (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ). Most DNA molecules are found in structures called chromosomes which carry genetic information called genes.  Cells divide and in the process they replicate chromosomes and DNA, extending the information to new nucleuses.  When a cell is not in the process of division, a mass known as chromatin appears which consists of protein, RNA and DNA (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).

The nucleus is also surrounded by the nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, is made up of phospholipid bilayer, and its primary function is to control the flow of materials to and from the nucleus (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).  Another structure found in the nucleus is the nucleolus.  Inside the nucleolus ribosomal RNA is made based on the code found in the DNA (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).

 

Reece, J.B., Taylor, M.R., Simon, E.J., & Dickey, J.L. (2012). Campbell biology:

concepts and connections (7th ed.).Retrieved from The University of Phoenix

eBook Collections.

 

  1. Jeff: The structure of the cell membrane is said to be described as a fluid mosaic (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).  What biologists are referring to when they describe cellular membranes as fluid mosaics is the bilayer of phospholipids that is embedded with proteins and within the cell while the membrane is fluid in nature able to move around freely.  The mosaic piece comes from the membranes having many different protein molecules attached to it frame (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ). This description may also point the many varying functions of the protein molecules within the cell (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).  The functions of these proteins include: transport, intercellular joining, signal transduction, enzymatic activity, cell to cell recognition, and attachment to the cytoskeleton (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).   Two main types of molecules which reside or are embedded in the cell membrane are proteins and enzymes. Proteins help maintain cell shape and structure, while others are used as receptors for messages to cell  (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).  Enzymes may be used to help carry out the steps of a metabolic pathway (Reece, Taylor, Simon, & Dickey,  2012, ).

 

 

Reece, J.B., Taylor, M.R., Simon, E.J., & Dickey, J.L. (2012). Campbell biology:

concepts and connections (7th ed.).Retrieved from The University of Phoenix

eBook Collections.

 

  1. Danielle: The nucleus is the “brain” of the cell and controls its functions and activities by directing protein synthesis – including synthesis of ribosomal RNA and of messenger RNA – within the cell using instructions provided by DNA within the cell.  If the nucleus is the brain of the cell, DNA is the set of instructions that tells the nucleus how to function.  The nucleus contains the majority of the cell’s DNA, which partners with proteins contained in the cell’s chromosomes (structures in the nucleus which carry the cell’s genes) to form DNA’s helix structure.  Paired together, the DNA and proteins are called chromatin.  Among the directions that DNA gives is synthesis of ribosomal RNA within the nucleolus; during synthesis, ribosomal RNA integrates with proteins that enter the nucleolus to form the building blocks of ribosomes, which then flow out of the nucleus through pores in the nuclear envelope and join together to form whole ribosomes within the cell’s cytoplasm.  The nuclear envelope, made up of two phospholipid bilayers and proteins and interspersed with pores, encloses the nucleus and regulates what can flow into and out of the nucleus, much as the plasma membrane controls what flows into and out of the cell.

 

Reece, J.B., Taylor, M.R., Simon, E.J., & Dickey, J.L. (2012). Campbell biology:

concepts & connections (7th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc.

 

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