I. Chose a topic by determining a specific goal
II. Analyze your audience
- Demographic analysis helps predict audience¿s reactions to a topic, as well as gather and provide appropriate information)
III. Research your material
- When selecting evidence be sure to use well-respected sources, document them using correct in-text APA citations, cite them verbally in the speech, and list them at the end of the outline in References.
IV. Begin with an outline
A. There are 3 Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches
- Time Order – listing or describing steps of a process
- Topic Order – describing types or natural divisions of a topic
- Logical Reasons Order – providing reasons that support the topic
B. Format your outline using conventional outline format. Each outline must have:
- Title – names the topic
- Purpose – broad goal of speech (inform or persuade)
- Central Idea – short summary of your message
- Specific Goal – is a precisely stated measurable goal
- Introduction – previews the speech and provides reasons to listen
- Body – main content of the speech
- Conclusion – wraps up main points
- Transitions – help link ideas and guide listeners through the speech
- Visual Aids – support main ideas visually
- References – must be formatted in APA style
- author’s name is listed starting with the last name and first name initial (for example: LaFave, D.)
- publication date follows in parentheses (for example: 2008).
- title of an article is listed in lowercase with capitalized first word only (for example: Good use of grammar.)
- title of a book or periodical is italicized (for example: The New York Times).
- retrieval statement of online source must include date of retrieval, a complete hyperlink, and cannot be underlined (for example: Retrieved July 7, 2008, from http://www.keiseruniversity.edu/programs.php).
Example of outline
Example: Final Typed Outline for Informative Speeches – Speech 1
(This is sentence format; your final outline should not be A MANUSCRIPT.)
Speech Title: Dream a little Dream
General Purpose: To Inform
Specific Purpose: I want to educate my audience about three main types of dreams including:
Daydreams, Nightmares, and Lucid dreams.
I. Attention Getter: (Riddle) As an average person you spend 6 years of your life doing
this. You do this 4 to 7 times in a span of 2 to 3 hours. What am I talking about?
Dreaming of course!
II. Statement of Significance: Dreams consume a sufficient amount of time in our lives,
and in a class this size, imagine how much time that is! Dreams are interesting to
learn about and hopefully I can educate you about dreams.
III. Establish Credibility: I became interested in dreams when I was enrolled in
Psychology 101 in the fall of 2001. Within this section of psychology, I became interested in educating myself about dreams, which included talking to psychology instructors, psychiatrists, and researching the topic.
IV. Preview of Main Points: Dreams consume a sufficient amount of time in a person’s life, and dreams are actually very interesting to learn about. There are seven different types of dreams, but today, I hope to educate my fellow classmates about three of the main types which include: Daydreams, Nightmares, and Lucid Dreams.
Transition: “Excuse me, did you hear a word I just said?” Have any of you ever had this phrase spoken to you…I sure have, when I’m Daydreaming.
I. The Daydream is the first type of dream I will talk about.
A. It is defined as the level of consciousness between sleep and wakefulness where the mind begins to wander. The level of awareness to the world around us decreases and the mind begins to imagine, taking you to a different world.
1. They may occur during class lectures.
2. A person daydreams 70-120 minutes everyday.
Transition: Daydreaming can cause some problems, but the health benefits far outweigh the negative effects. Daydreams can also influence night dreams.
II. The Nightmare is the second type of dream I will talk about.
A. It is defined as a dream that causes a person to wake up frightened or even in a
- Nightmares impact a person and cause a person to remember details.
- Some people are more apt to have nightmares more often than others.
Transition: Nightmares can be eerie and an uncomfortable, even a frightening experience. Sometimes you need a superhero to help you in a nightmare or dream situation. Sometimes that superhero is you.
III. Lucid Dreams are the third type of dreams I will talk about.
A. A lucid dream occurs when a person realizes during the dream that they are only dreaming.
- Some people can stay dreaming instead of waking up.
- Lucid dreams can be FUN!
Transition: I’m sure you are wondering right now what I should do next, help me lucid dreams… I should probably end the speech! So let’s review….
- Review: All three of these types of dreams: daydreams, nightmares, and lucid dreams are very interesting to explore.
- Restatement of Significance: Dreaming is something that a person such as yourself spends so many years on…that’s the equivalent about of time as your college years. Educate yourself!
- Closing Device: Tonight, as you lay down to sleep become the superhero you admire…it might just help you make a decision!
Bulkeley, K., & Hartmann, E. (2011). Big dreams: An analysis using central image intensity,
content analysis, and word searches. Dreaming, 21(3), 157-167.
Dream Moods, Inc. (2012). Types of Dreams. Retrieved from
Levitan, L. (1992). A thousand and one nights of exploring lucid dreaming. Nightlight, (4)2.
Retrieved from http://www.lucidity.com/NL42.1001Nights.html
Powerpoint: Slide 1: Nova dreamer art with a few benefits listed