Crime and terrorism are closely related, often through financial linkages.

this chapter 12 analyzes negative global flows and processes such as dangerous imports, borderless diseases, cross-border crime, terrorism, and war. With globalization, such flows can move across borders with ease and at great speed. Negative globalization comprises not only flows and processes, but also structures. Negative flows also induce global counter reactions. Global value chains involve the importation of both products and product ingredients. The length and multiplicity of these chains leave them vulnerable to the spread of contaminants along their entire length and breadth. Further, the complexity of the chain often makes it difficult to locate the source of contamination. The transmission of diseases across borders is not a novel phenomenon. However, it has become much more common in recent years. The spread of such diseases indicates the difficulty involved in checking the flow of disease-causing pathogens across borders. This global spread is particularly influenced by the increasing mobility of people. For instance, AIDS travels from one region to the other through human vectors. The situation calls for an appropriately global response. It is often the most vulnerable populations that bear the burden of such diseases, for instance the high incidence of AIDS cases in regions across Africa. This segment of the global population is also least likely to have access to the expensive health care required to combat such diseases. Globalization also contributes to the spread of diseases in other ways. For instance, global warming has resulted in the spread of tropical diseases to what is now a warmer Europe. The magnitude and volume of cross-border crime has increased with globalization. Correspondingly, global attention to this flow has also increased. Cross-border crime involves flows of drugs, money, victims, perpetrators, as well as illegal commodities, through physical as well as virtual (Internet-based) channels. The decline in the regulatory powers of the nation-state translates into an increasing inability to check such flows. However, the adoption of the latest technologies, as well as sophisticated organizational methods based on legitimate businesses models, is helping to improve the ability to deal with global crime. Despite its decline, the nation-state retains the power to define global forms of deviance and crime (for instance the categorization of marijuana as illegal and harmful in the US and Europe). In the era of globalization, the nation-states of Western Europe and the US disseminated their sense of morality and norms of behavior to the rest of the world. The growth of global crime has led to a selective tightening of border controls in the US and Europe. However, more stringent measures of global crime control have given rise to concerns about the violation of human rights as well as the threats posed to democracy. Crime and terrorism are closely related, often through financial linkages. Terrorism is defined as actions that cause “deaths, serious bodily injuries, and serious damage to public or private property, places, facilities, or other systems” and are aimed at intimating citizens, governments, or international organizations. There is a need to distinguish terrorism from below (undertaken by stateless organizations such as al-Qaeda) from terrorism from above (i.e. practiced by the state). Terrorist activities are expanding in terms of their global aspirations and reach. Terrorist groups are no longer restricted to their home territory and can strike anywhere in the world. They also have access to sophisticated technology that enables them to transmit their messages to a global audience. As a result, the counter-reaction to 2 terrorism is also increasingly global. However, in launching such an offensive, nation-states often resort to tactics that resemble those of the terrorists they seek to combat. Warfare is increasingly influenced by globalization. Global interconnectedness implies that a war in a region is no longer an isolated phenomenon and will involve other regions, often quite distant, directly or indirectly. In fact, this interconnectedness is interpreted by some as an indication that the incidence of war might decline with globalization. However, the economic gains of war and easy access to weapons in the global era might actually lead to an increase in warfare. Drones are becoming an increasingly common technology deployed in war and will continue to shape warfare far into the future. Further, advanced technologies make new forms of warfare, including information war and cyberwar, possible. This involves information permeating all aspects of war and warfare that increasingly takes place through the Internet
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