In the Assignment Instructions folder, there is an SPSS data file that will be the basis for your analysis. The data included are fictional and were created solely for this assignment.
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D scale) is often utilized to measure depressive symptomology (Radloff, 1977). It is a self-assessment that is completed by the individual. The CES-D contains 20-items rated on a 4-point scale (0 = Rarely or None of the Time to 3 = Most or All of the Time). The phrase “Within the past week did you…” prefaces the questions in order to emphasize recent depressive mood. Scores are summed and can range from 0 to 60. Traditionally, individuals with scores over 16 are identified as “depressed” (Weissman, et al., 1977), though due to high false positive rates, a score of 27 is considered a more useful cut-off (Zich, et al., 1990). The full scale can be accessed at: http://www.chcr.brown.edu/pcoc/cesdscale.pdf. Items 4, 8, 12, and 16 are reversed to avoid “yay-saying” or “nay saying” (Radloff, 1977). Several studies have validated four subscales across a variety of subgroups (i.e., depressive affect, well-being, somatic, and interpersonal) (Gliem & Gliem, 2003).
Reliability and Subtest Scoring
You will continue the analysis of the CES-D data by learning to score the survey and create subtest scores. Note: we are creating our own norms on this survey for Friberg University students so there are no scores for comparison.
According to Knight, Williams, McGee, and Olaman (1997) and many others (e.g., Gliem & Gliem, 2003), the following subscales can be calculated:
DA = Depressive Affect
W = Well-being
S = Somatic
I = Interpersonal
|1. S||2. S||3. DA||4. W||5. S|
|6. DA||7. S||8. W||9. DA||10. DA|
|11. S||12. W||13. S||14. DA||15. I|
|16. W||17. DA||18. DA||19. I||20. S|
- Reverse code the appropriate items (4, 8, 12, and 16) for calculating the total score (0 becomes 3, 1 becomes 2, 2 becomes 1, and 3 becomes 0).
- Compute the total CES-D score.
- Compute the four subscale scores. (Note: Be careful when interpreting “well-being.”)
- Calculate Cronbach’s alpha for the overall scale and each subscale.
- Create a single table to show the appropriate measures of central tendency and dispersion for all of the variables (total, depressive affect, well-being, somatic, and interpersonal).
- Create the appropriate graphs to show the distribution of scores for each subscale.
- Write a summary paragraph explaining the outcome: Overall, scores ranged from X to XX (M = X, SD = X.X), indicating…. Subscale scores revealed…. Be sure to include means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alphas, and interpretations of the data.