Consumer Behavior

1. Wal-Mart tracks the habits of the 100 million customers who visit its stores each week and responds with products and services directed toward those customers’ needs based on the information collected. This is an example of ________ marketing.

a. undifferentiated

b. relationship

c. consumer-generated

d. database


2. A consumer with a(n) ________ attachment to a product uses the product as part of his or her daily routine.

a. nostalgic

b. interdependent

c. positivist

d. psychographic


3. A digital native is someone who ________.

a. is a heavy user of alternate reality games (ARGs)

b. grew up in a “wired” and highly networked world

c. belongs to a consumption community

d. participates in database marketing


4. The National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus is an example of a(n) ________. a. industry watchdog

b. social marketer

c. culture jammer

d. federal agency


5. Researchers who argue that the field of consumer behavior should not be a “handmaiden to business” believe that consumer behavior research should ________.

a. be judged in terms of its ability to improve marketing practices

b. focus on understanding consumption for its own sake

c. have a market-oriented focus

d. aim to apply knowledge to increasing profits


6. Which of the following social science fields would most likely be associated with macro consumer behavior?

a. cultural anthropology

b. clinical psychology

c. experimental psychology

d. human ecology


7. A student of postmodernism is most likely to believe that the world in which we live is a(n) ________, or a mixture of images.

a. consumerspace

b. paradigm

c. pastiche

d. alternate reality


8. Jenny Rowlins is absolutely exhausted after her shopping trip to pick out a dress for her sorority’s formal event. The stores were crowded, and none of her favorite shops carried a dress that she liked in her size. After spending hours at the mall, Jenny gave up and decided to order her dress online and just return it if it wasn’t exactly right. This decision took place in the ________ stage of Jenny’s consumption process.

a. prepurchase

b. purchase

c. influence

d. postpurchase


9. Evan does business in South America. He has mastered Spanish and many cultural norms, but he still has problems with cultural differences in ethics. Many of the regulatory officials Evan must deal with expect bribes. Evan solves this problem by bringing with him a number of moderately priced watches. When an official admires his watch, Evan offers it to him or her as a gift. Later he puts a new watch on his wrist. Evan’s situation demonstrates that ________.

a. a small lapse of ethics is acceptable

b. universal values are the basis of business ethics

c. laws regulating business have become uniform because of the demands of a global economy

d. different cultures define ethical business behaviors differently


10. An advertisement for a national shampoo shows a plain woman using the product, then transforming to a gorgeous woman with a new hairstyle, dressed in elegant clothes, waiting for the “man of her dreams” to appear on her doorstep. This advertisement best illustrates which of the following criticisms of the marketing system?

a. Marketers create needs.

b. Marketing makes society overly materialistic.

c. Marketers control popular culture.

d. Marketers promise miracles.


11. George says that he sees everything as “black or white no in between.” George would most accurately be characterized as a(n) ________.

a. interpretivist

b. collectivist

c. consumerist

d. positivist


12. Which of the following refers to the process by which the way a word sounds influences the listener’s assumptions about what the word describes?

a. semiotics

b. audio watermarking

c. the principle of similarity

d. sound symbolism


13. The minimum difference that can be detected between two stimuli is known as the ________.

a. “bare” minimum

b. j.n.d. (just noticeable difference)

c. gradual differentiation

d. graded difference


14. According to Weber’s Law, the ________ the initial stimulus, the greater a change must be for people to notice the change.

a. stronger

b. weaker

c. more unusual

d. more common


15. Which of the following refers to the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli?

a. schema

b. interpretation

c. semiotics

d. perception


16. A new Green Giant ad campaign relied on the ________ when it used a redesigned package for Green Giant products that showed the Green Giant in a “sea of green.” It was felt that the Green Giant products were now unified under a common design banner.

a. principle of similarity

b. subliminal principle

c. closure principle

d. figure-ground principle


17. Lifestyle, attributes, competitors, and quality are all dimensions marketers can use to carve out a brand’s ________ in the marketplace.

a. priming

b. position

c. trade dress

d. sensory signature


18. Ben Perez is driving along a mountain road. In the distance, he sees a road crew working on a fallen tree that has blocked the highway. When Ben first sees the road crew, which of the following perceptual processes has been engaged?

a. interpretation

b. exposure

c. attention

d. adaptation


19. One of the principles of psychophysics is that changes in the physical environment are not always matched by equal changes perceptually. If Madison Wilson were creating a new drink, what would psychophysics tell her? a. She would need to research how the perception of “sweetness” changed by the amount of sugar added.

b. She would need to look at the subliminal aspects of “sweetness.”

c. She could make the drink twice as sweet by adding twice the amount of sugar.

d. She would need to create promotions to tell customers how “sweet” the new drink is.


20. Another name for instrumental conditioning is ________ conditioning.

a. reward

b. stimulus

c. operant

d. neo-classical


21. In instrumental conditioning, what is the distinction between negative reinforcement and punishment?

a. There is no difference. They are two words for the same thing.

b. Negative reinforcement creates a preference for negative results, while punishment teaches people to avoid negative results.

c. Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative outcome is avoided, while punishment occurs when an action causes a negative outcome.

d. Negative reinforcement can occur when a stimulus is positive, and punishment occurs when a stimulus is painful.


22. Determining the most effective reinforcement schedule to use with consumers is important to marketers. What type of reinforcement schedule is most likely being used when after a period of time has passed, the first response a consumer makes brings the reward?

a. fixed-interval reinforcement

b. fixed-ratio reinforcement

c. variable-interval reinforcement

d. variable-ratio reinforcement


23. Within a knowledge structure, which of the following is the LEAST complex knowledge unit?

a. proposition

b. schema

c. script

d. meaning


24. Sam Bolton hums the Purina Cat Chow jingle as he drives down the expressway. A thought suddenly occurs to Sam: “Why am I humming this stupid jingle? I don’t buy this stuff. In fact, I don’t even have a cat.” Sam knows this jingle through ________.

a. reinforcement modeling

b. incidental learning

c. operant conditioning

d. stimulus generalization


25. “It’s time for the Christmas shopping list,” thought Martha’s mother, so she asked Martha for a quick list of her favorite perfumes. Martha gave her mother six names that were all her “favorite.” This group constitutes Martha’s ________ set for perfume.

a. activation

b. position

c. rational

d. evoked




1. Whether a consumer’s need is utilitarian or hedonic, the ________ it creates determines the urgency the consumer feels to reduce it.

a. reinforcement

b. magnitude of the tension

c. expectancy

d. direction of the tension


2. When a woman buys expensive jewelry, which of the following needs is most likely being expressed?

a. biogenic

b. rational

c. utilitarian

d. hedonic


3. What type of conflict exists when we desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time?

a. avoidance-avoidance conflict

b. approach-approach conflict

c. direction-valence conflict

d. approach-avoidance conflict


4. Which of the following needs from Maslow’s Hierarchy is addressed by the U.S. Army’s advertising slogan “Be all you can be”?

a. safety needs

b. self-actualization needs

c. belongingness needs

d. ego needs


5. Which of the following is characterized by a sense of playfulness, a distorted sense of time, and mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake?

a. inertia

b. flow state

c. homeostasis

d. cognitive dissonance


6. A(n) ________ approach assumes that very specific product attributes are linked at levels of increasing abstraction to terminal values.

a. means-end chain model

b. List of Values

c. instrumental value

d. abstract model


7. Franz Schmidt is a German teenager. His father was recently transferred to Tokyo, Japan. Franz realizes that he will have to make a big adjustment to be successful in this new environment. As Franz and his family make an adjustment to the Japanese culture, they will go through a learning process called ________.

a. acculturation

b. laddering

c. enculturation

d. globalization


8. Lindsay believed that customers would come to view her new resort hotel with high personal involvement because it was a quality property with an excellent view. Instead, she found that many of her customers came to the hotel only when she offered special price discounts. What aspect of consumer involvement had Lindsay ignored?

a. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement is primarily a function of price; other factors such as quality are relatively unimportant.

b. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement develops only over long periods of time, and most tourists simply don’t have the time to become involved consumers.

c. Lindsay forgot that most consumers are apathetic about travel, irrespective of the quality of facilities at their travel destinations.

d. Lindsay forgot that consumer involvement includes personal factors and situational factors as well as object factors.


9. Why are approach-approach conflicts likely to create more cognitive dissonance than approach-avoidance conflicts?

a. Approach-approach conflicts are very confusing to resolve intellectually, but approach-avoidance conflicts are typically simply resolved through behavioral aspects of reinforcement learning.

b. Approach-avoidance conflicts create inertia, thus past habits are employed without the need to resolve the cognitive inconsistencies.

c. Approach-avoidance conflicts result when the positive alternative simply overwhelms the negative, thus no cognitive dissonance exists under this condition.

d. Approach-approach conflicts result when both alternatives are positive. The selection of one requires the rejection of another, which creates a need for a cognitive explanation of why one positive choice was not selected.


10. “Casual Fridays” in American workplaces encourage the expression of a person’s ________.

a. virtual self

b. cultural self

c. dual self

d. unique self


11. ________ refers to the positivity of a person’s self-concept.

a. Social comparison

b. Self-image

c. Self-esteem

d. Self-concept


12. Matthew assumes the virtual identity of Vlad the Conqueror and is able to see himself in an online game as an armored attack robot. This visual identity is called a(n) ________.

a. distorted self-image

b. avatar

c. ideal self

d. extended self


13. ________ refers to the possession of both masculine and feminine traits.

a. Dysmorphia

b. Heterosexuality

c. Homosexuality

d. Androgyny


14. Shanshea worked hard to finish her engineering degree at M.I.T., and she proudly displays a bumper sticker declaring “M.I.T. Engineer” on her car. This bumper sticker is an example of a(n) ________.

a. avatar

b. platform

c. badge

d. cathexis


15. Jake is a high school wrestler who often struggles to “make weight” to qualify for his desired weight category for a wrestling meet. Jake often weighs himself ten times a day and tightly controls how much he eats, feeling miserable about any appearance of fat on his body and disguising his body in baggy pants and roomy sweatshirts. If he doesn’t reach his desired weight, Jake feels like a failure. This is an example of ________.

a. androgyny

b. body dysmorphic disorders

c. fattism

d. dimorphic markers


16. In a Freudian interpretation, which of the following is most closely associated with the pleasure principle?

a. the superego

b. the id

c. the anti-ego

d. the ego


17. Esso (now Exxon in the United States) used the work of Ernest Dichter to influence its “Put a Tiger in Your Tank” ad campaign. Which of the following conclusions formed the rationale for the famous campaign?

a. The size of the tiger enhances a male’s ego.

b. The tiger supplies powerful animal symbolism and it contains vaguely sexual undertones.

c. Orange and black are two of the most powerful colors in the color spectrum.

d. The playful nature of the tiger is appealing to female consumers.


18. Jim sees himself as being confident, powerful, and heroic. According to the BrandAsset Archetypes model developed by ad agency Young & Rubicam, Jim would be classified as a ________.

a. Sage

b. Warrior

c. Patriarch

d. Troubadour


19. Lee-Ann Wang is young and enjoys risky experiences such as skydiving, bungee jumping, and snowboarding. To which of the following VALS2 groups would Lee-Ann most likely belong?

a. Experiencers

b. Thinkers

c. Achievers

d. Strivers


20. Jeffrey Quills is seen by his friends as a somewhat strange person. At times he is lovable, warm, and friendly. At other times he can be mean-spirited, uncaring, and hostile to all who know him. Which of the following general statements about personality most closely matches what friends observe about Jeffrey?

a. Psychologists agree that a standard personality component exists in all people.

b. Most psychologists have completely abandoned the concept of personality.

c. Many studies have found that people do not seem to exhibit stable personalities.

d. People have a standard personality that can be identified as belonging to one of five categories.


21. The theory of cognitive dissonance is based on the ________.

a. principle of cognitive-affect conflict

b. knowledge function

c. principle of cognitive consistency

d. self-identification function


22. What does the sleeper effect suggest about source credibility?

a. The effectiveness of a message will increase over time.

b. Many people can learn the important parts of a message even when asleep.

c. The effectiveness of positive sources over negative sources can be erased over time.

d. If a receiver is not paying attention, a message cannot be effective.


23. Source ________ refers to the message source’s perceived social value.

a. attractiveness

b. hierarchy

c. valence

d. class


24. The ________ route to persuasion is taken when the receiver is not really motivated to think about the arguments made in a communication message.

a. peripheral

b. central

c. dual

d. subconscious


25. The Berry and Dale advertising agency has proposed a new campaign for Bayer Aspirin to overcome the public’s tendency to “tune out” Bayer commercials. The proposed technique will be to create ten different 15-second spots that all demonstrate reasons for using Bayer Aspirin. Which of the following theories of message communication is the agency trying to account for in its proposal for Bayer Aspirin?

a. the theory of reasoned action

b. the two-factor theory

c. the balanced communication theory

d. the trait-factor theory




1. When is a consumer most likely to engage in extended problem solving?

a. This decision mode is most common when acceptable products are already contained within the consumer’s evoked set.

b. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to the person’s self- concept and the outcome has a high degree of risk.

c. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to products that are considered to have low self-concept involvement.

d. This decision mode is most common when the decision is related to the person’s past behavior and product reinforcements.


2. A consumer who moves his or her ideal state upward is experiencing ________.

a. need recognition

b. search recognition

c. habitual recognition

d. opportunity recognition


3. As a customer’s product knowledge increases, what typically happens to the amount of search conducted by the consumer?

a. It will continually increase.

b. It will continually decrease.

c. It will decrease, and then increase as the customer becomes more knowledgeable.

d. It will increase, and then decrease as the customer becomes more knowledgeable.


4. The alternatives actively considered during a consumer’s choice process are his or her ________ set.

a. evaluative

b. evoked

c. inert

d. consideration


5. According to the theory called ________, a company can make money if it sells small amounts of items that only a few people want if the company sells enough different items.

a. feature creep

b. Zipf’s Law

c. neuromarketing

d. the long tail


6. A ________ rule means that a product with a low standing on one attribute cannot make up for this position by being better on another attribute.

a. conjunctive

b. compensatory decision

c. lexicographic

d. noncompensatory decision


7. Kent, a college student, is a loyal Coca-Cola drinker. He averages about six Cokes a day. He even prefers Coke to water. However, today when he passed a vending machine in his dorm, he bought a new flavor of soft drink called Big Red. Which of the following most accurately explains his behavior, given the facts about Kent’s previous behavior?

a. Kent is involved in extended problem solving.

b. Kent is brand switching.

c. Kent is influenced by peer pressure.

d. Kent is variety seeking.


8. Of the following products, which one would typically carry high psychological risk for the average consumer?

a. a lawn mower

b. a family vacation to a theme park

c. a kitchen blender

d. an expensive mink coat


9. Coca-Cola is an example of a(n) ________ product because it has come to characterize an entire category of soft drinks.

a. evoked

b. exemplar

c. heuristic

d. criteria


10. Latrell finds that every time he goes to select athletic shoes, he always buys the same brand. In fact, he doesn’t even remember trying on any of the other competitive brands even though some of these brands have attractive styles and prices. Latrell’s purchase decision process has become one of less and less effort. Latrell’s decision process is an example of ________.

a. ineptness

b. cognitive dissonance

c. inertia

d. information discrimination


11. A small company, Craig Inventions, produced a pill that had the nutrient value of a healthy breakfast. The company put the product on the market as a substitute for breakfast for busy people. The product failed. Craig Inventions then marketed the pill as a diet product and it became very successful. What does the example best demonstrate?

a. The company confused a subordinate level with a basic level of categorization, which led to the company’s failure to identify the product’s most important competitors.

b. The company did not position the product well. It was difficult to convince consumers that a pill was a breakfast on the superordinate level; however, it did appear to fit appropriately within the superordinate category of diet pills.

c. The company confused a superordinate level with a subordinate level of categorization.

d. The determinant attributes between diet pills and breakfast were not sufficiently strong.


12. Most Americans will state that they are always rushed for time even though many people have opportunities for leisure. This perception is referred to as ________.

a. circular time

b. psychological time

c. the leisure paradox

d. time poverty


13. A ________ orientation dimension distinguishes between people who prefer to do one thing at a time and those who have multitasking timestyles.

a. social

b. planning

c. temporal

d. polychronic


14. Which of the following cultures is likely to see time as cyclic?

a. Hispanic

b. German

c. Swiss

d. American


15. Which of the following is considered a limitation of e-commerce?

a. lack of reasonable delivery times

b. higher prices than in-store prices

c. expensive to order and then return

d. lack of real-time pricing


16. In-store shopping has become extremely important in today’s highly competitive retail environment. It has been estimated that about ________ of supermarket purchases are decided in the aisles as consumers shop.

a. one-half

b. two-thirds

c. four-fifths

d. one-quarter


17. Which of the following best identifies what consumers primarily look for in products?

a. quality and value

b. price and warranty

c. quality and warranty

d. color and style


18. The Japanese believe that successful total quality management can be achieved by going to the one true source of information called the ________.

a. ISO

b. gestalt

c. gemba

d. sigma


19. Julie Morgan loves to go into Springer’s Old Country Gifts. It always smells like a field of spring flowers. The lighting gives all the products a warm glow, and the mood music is just perfect for casual browsing. After her visit to the store, Julie is always in a better mood. Springer’s Old Country Gifts has attracted Julie with its ________.

a. store position

b. atmospherics

c. marketscape theme

d. subliminal cues


20. A number of specific decision roles are played when a collective decision must be made. The person who brings up the idea or need is the ________.

a. initiator

b. influencer

c. gatekeeper

d. buyer


21. Many factors have been identified that distinguish organizational and industrial purchase decisions from individual consumer decisions. Which of the following is NOT one of those distinctions?

a. Organizational purchase decisions tend to be riskier than individual consumer purchase decisions.

b. Organizational and industrial products are often bought according to precise, technical specifications.

c. Impulse buying commonly occurs in organizational purchasing because of sales stimulation from direct salespeople.

d. Purchase decisions made by companies frequently involve many people.


22. Which of the following refers to couples who both have incomes and do not have children?

a. boom-babies


c. boomerangers



23. Julie wants to go back to school. It will cost a lot of money and affect Jeff, her husband. They sit down together and work out a plan that will allow Julie to finish her degree. This is an example of a(n) ________ decision.

a. syncretic

b. autonomic

c. convergent

d. family-flow


24. Jennifer and Ted have been married about six months. One of Jennifer’s complaints about Ted’s behavior during their brief marriage is that he seems to make all the decisions when the couple has to purchase high-risk or expensive durables (such as furniture or a new car). Ted is making ________ decisions.

a. synoptic

b. syncretic

c. consensual

d. autonomic


25. Meredith works hard to keep her family together in this fast-paced world. She coordinates visits with relatives, calls and writes often to her parents and grandparents, and makes sure her husband remembers all significant birthdays and anniversaries. In this example, Meredith is primarily responsible for the continuation of the family’s ________.

a. customer networks

b. kin-network system

c. cognitive development

d. life cycle




1. Reference groups influence us in three ways. These influences include informational, utilitarian, and ________ dimensions.

a. reputational

b. value-expressive

c. descriptive

d. knowledge


2. Within groups, informal rules of behavior are called ________.

a. interpersonal dynamics

b. norms

c. values

d. beliefs


3. According to the principle of least interest, the person who is least ________ has the most power in a relationship.

a. committed to staying in the relationship

b. concerned about sanctions against nonconforming behavior

c. susceptible to interpersonal influence

d. susceptible to cultural pressures


4. A marketing manager who wants to identify opinion leaders for her product category should do which of the following?

a. She should find intellectuals who can write and speak well so that communication will be facilitated.

b. She should find government officials who use the product.

c. She should find socially active persons who are intensely interested in the product category and who are similar to other customers.

d. She should look for people who stand out in a crowd.


5. ________ refers to the strategy of getting visitors to a website to forward information on the site to their friends in order to make still more consumers aware of a product.

a. Viral marketing

b. Foot-in-door marketing

c. Demand-based marketing

d. Guerrilla marketing


6. Social networking is an integral part of what many call ________, which is characterized by interactive platforms that foster the creation of communities.

a. Web 2.0

b. the mega Web

c. the inner Web

d. the virtual world


7. Which form of reference group influence is most associated with the following situation? Carl knows that Bert has had experience with various types of motor oils because Bert is a mechanic for a large Cadillac dealership. Carl asks Bert to compare his brand against Quaker State. Bert tells Carl that Quaker State can’t be beat for performance and durability.

a. informational influence

b. value-expressive influence

c. utilitarian influence

d. coercive influence


8. Every summer, thousands of bikers converge on Sturgis, South Dakota, filling up every campground, motel, and hotel within miles of the city. This annual meeting is an example of a gathering of a(n) ________.

a. consumer tribe

b. maven network

c. aspirational group

d. normative clan


9. Propinquity is a factor that is related to the power of a reference group. How will it influence the relative power between a membership group and an avoidance group?

a. Propinquity should make membership groups weaker than avoidance groups because the motivation to distance oneself is increased with closeness.

b. Propinquity will have no influence on either membership groups or avoidance groups.

c. Propinquity should make membership groups and avoidance groups equal in potential power.

d. Propinquity should make membership groups much stronger than avoidance groups.


10. With respect to social organization, some barnyard animals exhibit signs of a dominance- submission hierarchy. Which of the following terms best communicates such a hierarchy?

a. dog-eat-dog

b. follow-the-leader

c. king-of-the-hill

d. pecking order


11. Which of the following theorists is best known for arguing that an individual’s relationship to the means of production determines his position in society?

a. Max Weber

b. Horatio Alger

c. Karl Marx

d. Thorstein Veblen


12. Social analyst Thorstein Veblen believed that we buy things to create ________. This means we use our purchases to inspire envy in others through our display of wealth or power.

a. status crystallization

b. invidious distinction

c. affluenza

d. cultural capital


13. ________ defines a pattern of consumption reflecting a person’s choices on how he or she spends their time and money.

a. Habitus

b. Lifestyle

c. Social class

d. Cultural capital


14. Richard worked very hard on his grades and worked after school part time to be able to afford tutors to help him advance his education. When he was named number one in his class, he earned a certain status. The best term to describe the form of status that Richard earned is ________.

a. achieved status

b. classification status

c. ascribed status

d. reference group affiliation


15. Jason is a marketing researcher working for a client who believes that social class will be an important segmenting device. Jason decides to find social class categories by simply asking respondents to pick their own category. Which of the following best supports Jason’s approach?

a. American consumers are generally better able to identify their neighbors’ social class than their own social class.

b. Most Americans don’t mind talking about social class but usually get their own wrong.

c. American consumers generally have little difficulty accurately placing themselves in the lower-middle class or middle class.

d. Respondents will list the social class they wish to belong to rather than the one they actually occupy.


16. With 12. 5 percent of the population, the ________ population is the largest ethnic subculture in America.

a. American Indian

b. Hispanic American

c. African-American

d. Asian-American


17. Hispanic Americans are primarily (60 percent) of ________ descent.

a. Mexican

b. Puerto Rican

c. Dominican

d. South American


18. Which of the following distinguishes Asian Americans from other subcultures in the United States?

a. Asian Americans have the distinction of having a common language that acts as a unifying cultural agent.

b. Asian Americans constitute the largest subculture in the United States.

c. Asian American households are larger than most other ethnic households in America.

d. Asian Americans are the best educated of any ethnic subculture in the United States.


19. Japan is a very tightly knit culture with rich history and social identification. In this culture, people tend to infer meanings that go beyond the spoken word. This classifies Japan as a ________ culture.

a. paradigm

b. progressive

c. high-context

d. low-context


20. One of the goals of marketing to Gen Yers has been to allow them to remain free of the restraints of wires and cords, but still be connected to any media at any time. The lifestyle created by this approach is referred to as ________.

a. connexity

b. identity renaissance

c. cosplay

d. distinct-styling


21. A story containing symbolic elements that express the shared emotions and ideals of a culture is called a ________.

a. more

b. norm

c. ritual

d. myth


22. Which of the following is NOT one of the three distinct stages of gift-giving rituals?

a. presentation

b. convention

c. gestation

d. reformulation


23. Which of the following is an object that is admired strictly for its beauty or because it inspires an emotional reaction?

a. a craft product

b. a reality-engineered product

c. a trial product

d. an art product


24. A ________ innovation is a new product that creates major changes in the way we live.

a. globally continuous

b. discontinuous

c. dynamically continuous

d. continuous


25. Country singers Marty Stewart and Travis Tritt and their record label decided to change the culture of the Country and Western music scene. With their now famous “No Hats” tour, the singers abandoned conventional country and western fashion (they threw away their hats, let their hair grow long, and wore t-shirts) and tried to appeal to larger and younger audiences with a grinding sexy message. The process that these singers went through is best described as a ________.

a. cultural gatekeeping process (CGP)

b. cultural funnel

c. cultural distribution system (CDS)

d. cultural production system (CPS

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