Consider Skinner’s operant conditioning model of behavior. Is “free will” eliminated in this model? Why or why not?

Clinton Sutherland 

 

1 posts

Re:Module 7 DQ 1

Consider Skinner’s operant conditioning model of behavior. Is “free will” eliminated in this model? Why or why not? In this model, what is the role of “consequences” in shaping behavior and personality?

When I consider the role of skinner’s operant conditioning in one’s behavior “free will” is the essence of one decision-making. In view of this we should look at what would be considered behavioral norms in today’s society. Let’s first decide what “norm” means to us. There are social norms of influence to one’s behavior, which are values according to how much a behavior is exhibited and how much a group approves of the behavior. This is obvious in people’s response to information that is presented by the media. The rapid advancement of global communication network has given us access to information of violence, anger, rage, empathy, love, and unselfish behavior as it transpires and we are free to decide what is right from wrong. Considering how human gravitates towards what excites them, there is a connection between behavior norms, how much approval is given to a behavior, and one’s free will to do as they please. In view of the social-cognitive approach to behavior, Ryckman states, “according to Bandura, behavior is not caused solely by either inner forces or environmental influences (Ryckman, 2008, p. 414)”. When a person or group of people exhibited a behavior and the media continually presents it, people’s acceptance of the behavior is of conditioning, however their choice of right from wrong is of free will. One’s behavior results from their perception, worldview and internal processing or environmental influences. People make choices according to social norms, and social norms are also informal guidelines that are considered normal; guidelines that are of family values and social values. When considering societal concerns and the overall standards on what is considered norms, one’s “free will” is controlled by the prevalent factor in the laws. The law which is the absolute that represent the overriding societal view on moral issues, for it sets the standards and place judgment on individual’s behavior.

Reference

Ryckman, R. M. (2008) Theories of Personality (10th ed.) 5191 Natorn Bloulevard Mason, OH 45040 Cengage Learning.

http://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/cengage/2012/theories-of-personality_ebook_10e.php

Benjamin Garrison 

 

3 posts

Re:Module 7 DQ 1

Consider Skinner’s operant conditioning model of behavior. Is “free will” eliminated in this model? Why or why not? In this model, what is the role of “consequences” in shaping behavior and personality?

Skinner thought that behavior could be controlled through operant conditioning. He believed that individual’s reactions were the result of their environment and the rewards or punishments that they had received after completing similar behavior (Stoica, 2015). For instance, a child who was punished after doing something bad will tend not to repeat the action, however, if they receive a reward, such as getting away with the action, they are more likely to repeat the action. Ryckman (2013) pointed out that Skinner’s beliefs are not as simple as Watson’s stimulus-reaction theory. Skinner believed that individuals are complex and that their experiences throughout their life contributed to their behavior. For instance, a child that was taught right and wrong by their parents would not become a criminal after one reward, it would take several rewards before the individual’s behavior would change allowing them to participate in criminal activity.

Skinner ignored the concept of free will and concentrated on environmental factors. “Skinner believed that major advances will occur only when psychologists focus on the ways in which behavior and external environmental variables are causally related” (Ryckman, 2013, p. 363). He believed that cognitive theories attributed behaviors too easily, that scientists could just attribute the behavior to the individual’s ‘free will’ without explaining why or how it happened. He thought this was unproductive towards understanding individuals and their behaviors, therefore he choose to ignore the concept of free will.

Although most of Skinner’s research was on lower order animals, for instance pigeons, he thought that behaviors could be conditioned into humans and that this could lead to a “betterment of the individual” (Matile Ogletree & Archer, 2012, p. 18). Furthermore, he believed that these practices were already common place in society. He thought this was the method that parents used to teach children right and wrong. Parents provide consequences to their child’s behavior teaching them in the process.

Matile Ogletree, S., & Archer, R. L. (2012). Pats on the Back or Pointing the Finger: Judgments of Praise and Blame. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 8(1), 18-24.

Ryckman, R. M. (2013). Theories of personality (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Stoica, I. (2015). Programmed Instruction. Research Starters: Education (Online Edition),

 

 

 

 

 

Question from the professor

 

 

 

In light of this week’s discussion, are consequences the same as punishments?

Hi ALL,

 

In light of this week’s discussion, are consequences the same as punishments?

 

Why, why not?

 

Please explain in relation to the discussion and relevance to change in thinking and behavior.

 

Back your discussion with a credible source.

 

Thanks,

 

Dr. N

 

Maren Alitagtag 

 

1 posts

Re:Module 7 DQ 2

After reading Rotter’s expectancy-reinforcement model and Bandura’s theory, consider the concept of locus of control. What are the most significant factors or situations that can shape one’s sense of self efficacy and locus of control? Why?

Again, I go back to the example I got from my own parents and what I hope to convey with my own children.  When I do laundry, it is much faster if I do it on my own, without the “help” of my children.  However, for effective learning, my children need to be given tasks that they can learn to complete, in order to shape their own beliefs in their abilities.  As I have worked with my clients in various settings, I have been able to tell the difference between those who were given responsibilities as children that increased with age and ability, and those that did not.  I found a study that correlated intelligence, self-esteem, and parental education to internal locus of control (Furnham & Cheng, 2016).  This made me wonder what other factors are hidden in those correlations.  Do parents with a higher education give children more opportunity to learn to problem solve? Do parents with higher education foster opportunities that build self-esteem in children?  I think there are a variety of important factors that shape a person’s belief that they can take care of themselves and have a sense of control over the success they desire.

Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (2016). Childhood intelligence, self-esteem, early trait neuroticism and behaviour adjustment as predictors of locus of control in teenagers. Personality And Individual Differences95178-182. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.054

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Question from the professor

Nancy Walker 

 

3 posts

Please give us one example of locus of control either in daily living or in the field to denote a full 360 learning and application of this discussion.

Hi ALL,

 

 

Please give us one example of locus of control either in daily living or in the field to denote a full 360 learning and application of this discussion.

 

Thanks,

 

Dr. N

 

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