Anti-socialism refers to a behavior of lacking the consideration for other individuals and it might cause harm to the social order (Markie-Dadds & Sanders, 2006). Antisocialism is contrary to the pro-social behavior that benefits or assists the social order. Civil laws in different nations try to provide solution to anti-social behavior (Massion, Dyck, & Shea, 2002). An individual is labeled anti-socialist when he or she behaves contrary to the existing standards for social conduct. This involves an extremely wide range of actions (Massion, Dyck, & Shea, 2002). Some of the most recognized anti-social behavior includes murder, use of illegal substances and rape. Additional to these anti-social behaviors that are contrary to the established statutes, antisocialism also comprises of activities, which the society finds objectionable regardless of being legal. Some of the legal anti-social behaviors include sexual promiscuity and drunkenness. Anti-socialism is usually linked to the field of psychopathology. According to Massion, Dyck, & Shea (2002), psychopathology refers to the study of mental illness, mental distress and maladaptive or abnormal behavior. In psychopathology, especially in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, unrelenting anti-socialism constitutes the identification of Anti-social personality disorder (ASPD). Despite the existence of behavioral similarities between psychopathy and anti-socialism, the two terms are not identical. In this regard, this paper discusses anti-socialism from the perspective of psychopathology.
Discrimination influence both anti-social and pro-social behaviors. According to Mattes (2008), infants might act in an ostensibly anti-social manner, and yet be acknowledged as so young that they cannot know the difference between pro-social and anti-social behavior (McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough, 2005). It is normal for children in preschool to have an increase in aggression. According to McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough (2005), lack of aggression among children might result in anxiety and depression in later life. Nevertheless, persistent aggression among children might show social problems. McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola (2000) pointed out that unrelenting anti-socialism among individuals might result in the development of anti-social personality disorder (ASPD). Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002) stated that parents should to educate children that emotions should be repressed or regulated in order to prevent the development of anti-social personality disorder.
Investigations conducted by scientists have indicated that there is a direct association between social development and maternal malnutrition during the development process of the infant in the uterus (Moore & Freestone, 2006). These studies have indicated that maternal malnutrition can result in the development of anti-social personality disorder. According to Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002), much of the infant brain develops during the first two trimesters. As such, mothers incapable of getting proper nutrients within this period are directly affecting the development of the brain of the child. According to Moran, Jenkins, & Tylee (2000), the poor development of the brain of the child, because of maternal malnutrition, increases the possibility of the child developing anti-social personality disorder. This evidenced in the increased crime rates in poverty-stricken neighbors. This is because many mothers living in these places are frequently not capable of seeking proper nutrition, therefore resulting in many of the children becoming criminals.
It is frequently revealed that abused children are most likely to become anti-social later in their life (Moran, Jenkins, & Tylee, 2000). According to Moran, Jenkins, & Tylee (2000), the frequent abuse of children usually teaches them that violence, which is an anti-social behavior, is acceptable. Such children form their own tendencies of violence and an elevated aggressive drive. However, being abused during childhood does not necessarily imply that an individual will involuntarily develop antisocial personality disorder. A research by Markie-Dadds & Sanders (2006) showed that only 7 per cent of the interviewed participants developed anti-social personality disorder. Mattes (2008) also suggested that adolescents might frequently break social standards in order to evade parental and other pressures from the society. Others constituents, like friends might encourage the development of anti-socialism via peer pressure.
Some studies have also shown that the mutation of certain genes cause anti-social behavior (McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough, 2005). According to these studies, the over-expression of neurotransmitter serotonin causes anti-socialism among individuals. Neurotransmitter serotonin regulates the pleasure center in the brain. This neurotransmitter is continually active. As such, it makes an individual to decide to do things that satisfy him or herself, instead of thinking about the consequences (Moore & Freestone, 2006). Because many of the anti-social behaviors are pleasurable, the over-expression of serotonin causes and individual to seek out for these pleasurable situations.
Types of Antisocial Behaviors
It is significant to note that anti-socialism can imply several things to various individuals. According to Mattes (2008), the worst cases of anti-socialism are often reported in the media. As such, the type of antisocial behavior that intimidates or disturbs an individual might not be the same anti-social problem to another individual. In fact, one anti-social behavior can be a nuisance to an individual, while it is not to someone else.
According to McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough (2005), anti-social behavior refers to any kind of behavior, which opposes the standards placed by the society. Various sorts of extreme anti-social behaviors have been observed and documented. The commonly observed and documented ones include violence, theft, cruelty, and vandalism. Other lesser characters that might be classified as antisocial include lying, non-compliance, manipulation and drug and alcohol abuse. Moore & Freestone (2006) also referred to the following as some of the examples of anti-social behavior: graffiti, noisy neighbors, littering, and racism. According to McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola (2000), large groups of individuals hanging idly about in the city streets are some of the indications of anti-socialism experienced in the society, especially if such group is likely to cause distress and alarm.
According to Moran, Jenkins, & Tylee (2000), bullying is an example of anti-social behavior in the society. Bullying occurs because of the extreme narcissism and aggressive drives. The narcissistic behaviors of a bullies provide them with a sense of superiority. On the other hand, their aggressive drive always allows them to act on their narcissistic impulses. Bullying does not only occur in schools, but also occurs in various adult situations, including workplaces. In various cases, bullying is viewed as a verbal abuse, though different aggression levels can result in different levels of reactions. As such, it is potent for violence to take place.
Serial killing is one of the most serious examples of anti-socialism. Studies have identified a pattern within serial killers (McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough, 2005). After in-depth psychological testing, these studies have discovered that many serial killers have been behaving anti-socially. During their childhood, serial killers were found to have been frequently engaging in violent behaviors like hurting their colleagues or animals. These studies have also revealed that most serial killers are manipulative and intelligent. Ted Bundy’s case is evidence that serial killers are intelligent and manipulative.
These are just few of the examples of anti-social behavior (Mattes, 2008). The examples to anti-social behaviors are not limited to the ones listed in this paper. Some individuals commit anti-social behaviors without being aware that they are affecting other individuals.
The Subtypes of Anti-social Personality
Theodore Million discovered the five sub-categories of antisocial behavior: nomadic, malevolent, covetous, risk-taking, and reputation defending (Massion, Dyck, & Shea, 2002). The first subcategory, nomadic, comprises of avoidant and schizoid features. Nomadic antisocial individuals feel ill-fated, doomed, jinxed, cast- asided. According to Markie-Dadds & Sanders (2006), nomadic anti-socialists are peripherals, dropouts and misfits, tramps, itinerant vagabonds, wanderers, and impulsive. The second subcategory, malevolent antisocialists, comprises of paranoid and sadistic individuals. According to Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002), such individuals are belligerent, rancorous, malignant, brutal, vicious, resentful, and expect betrayal and punishment, callous, desires revenge, guiltless and fearless. The third subcategory is covetous antisocialists. Individuals suffering from this form of anti-social behavior feel intentionally deprived and denied. According to Massion, Dyck, & Shea (2002), such individuals are voracious, discontentedly yearn, seek retribution, envious, and avariciously greedy. In addition, covetous anti-social individuals find more pleasure in taking than giving. The fourth sub-category is the risk-taking anti-socialists, which comprises of histrionic features. Risk-taking anti-socialists are venturesome, dauntless, bold, intrepid, audacious, foolhardy, reckless, heedless, impulsive and daring. Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002) also pointed out that such individuals pursue dangerous ventures. The fifth category of anti-socialists is the reputation defending. They show narcissistic features. As such, they frequently want to be viewed as unflawed, invincible, formidable, inviolable, indomitable, and unbreakable. Reputation-defending anti-socialists are also over-reactive to minor things.
Pathophysiological Causes of Anti-socialism
Hormones and neurotransmitters have been identified to cause anti-socialism. Researchers such as Mattes (2008) have stated that anti-social personality is genetically based, though it has the typical environmental factors, like family relations, that cause its onset. According to Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002), traumatic events can result in the disturbance of the typical development of the central nervous system (CNS). This disturbance generates a release of hormonal factors that change the standard development patterns of the central nervous system. The abovementioned neurotransmitter serotonin has been majorly associated with the development of anti-social personality disorder.
The latest meta-analysis of about 20 researches indicated an association between serotonin metabolic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and antisocial personality disorder (Mattes, 2008). Moore & Freestone (2006) has also discussed additional proof of the association between anti-social personality disorder and 5HT. The proof argued that low concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid of 5-HIAA, and hormonal responses to 5HT show two major ascending 5HT pathways that mediate adaptive responses to current and post conditions. The injuries in the posterior 5HT cells can result in low mood functioning, as evidenced in individuals suffering from anti-social personality disorder. It is also significant to cite that the deregulated serotonergic function might be the only feature leading to antisocialism. Nevertheless, it is one of the aspects of a versatile association between psychological and biological factors.
Whereas it has been indicated that lower serotonin levels might be linked to anti-socialism, there is also proof that reduced serotonin function is significantly associated with aggression and impulsiveness across various experimental frameworks (Mattes, 2008). According to Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington (2002), impulsivity is not only associated with abnormalities in the metabolism of 5HT but might also be the major psychopathological aspect associated with such dysfunction. In a research assessing the link between acute levels of testosterone and combined effects of serotonin activity on human, the findings revealed that aggression was considerably higher in participants of high cortisol and testosterone responses. Likewise, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, failure to plan or impulsiveness, and aggressiveness and irritability are two of the seven major criteria used in diagnosing individuals with anti-social personality disorder. Some investigations have also established an association between antisocialism and monoamine oxidase in maltreated children (Moffitt, Caspi, & Harrington, 2002).
Cultural influences also cause an individual to behave anti-socially (McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola, 2000). According to the perspective of socio-cultural of clinical psychology, cultural aspects cause disorders. Because cultural norms significantly vary, mental illnesses like anti-social personality disorder are also viewed variably. McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola (2000) argued that the high prevalence of anti-social personality disorder in the US might be linked to the changes culture. Cultural changes serve to validate the behavioral propensities of many people suffering from anti-social personality disorder (McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola, 2000). According to Markie-Dadds & Sanders (2006), the high prevalence of ASPD might be partly merely a byproduct of the increasing abuse of diagnostic techniques. According to Moore & Freestone (2006), an individual might suffer from active or latent ASPD. Individuals suffering from latent ASPD keep themselves in check by attaching to an external source of control, like religion, traditional standards or the law. It has been shown that the erosion of the common standards might serve to release persons suffering from latent ASPD from their formerly pro-social behavior. There is also an incessant argument concerning the extent to which the legal system should be engaged in the admittance and identification of patients with prelude ASPD symptoms.
Anti-socialism is one of the most problematic illnesses to treat. However, therapy has been found to be efficient in treating individuals suffering from anti-socialism. Persons suffering from anti-socialism can be extremely seductive, dishonest and charming. According to Mattes (2008), therapy decreases their involvement in repeating their negative behaviors. Individuals suffering from anti-social behavior might not prefer being treated. Indeed, they think they do not need any treatment. Because anti-socialism is just a way of being, and not a condition, the affected persons are expected to need long-term, close care and follow-up. Therapy is one of the major ways of treating anti-socialism.
According to McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough (2005), psychotherapy plays a vital role in the treatment of anti-socialism. Cognitive behavioral therapy assists in the uncovering of the destructive and negative behaviors possessed by an individual. Such therapy also assists anti-social individuals to learn new positive behaviors. The therapy functions on the manner that the individual thinks he or she is being led to perform certain behaviors. McKay, Alterman, & Cacciola (2000) pointed out that psychodynamic psychotherapy tries to reveal the unconscious aggression and motives in an individual. This significantly assists in getting to root cause of the disruptive and negative behavior possessed by anti-social individuals.
Hospitalization is another form of treatment for anti-social behaviors. In some scenarios, the symptoms of anti-socialism can be so severe that they need hospitalization (Mattes, 2008). Hospitalization might be required for individuals who engage in behaviors that harm themselves, or who are in danger of harming other people. The options for hospitalization comprises of partial or day hospitalization, inpatient care, or residential treatment that provides supportive place to live. Hospitalization can be combined with medication to treat anti-socialism. Medications assist in the treatment of comorbid conditions in an individual suffering from anti-socialism. According to McCabe, Lucchini, & Hough (2005), medication is targeted at relieving anxiety or depression in anti-social individuals. However, until now, there are no drug treating behaviors of anti-socialism itself.
Antisocialism is contrary to the pro-social behavior that us a behavior benefiting or assisting the social order. Civil laws and criminals in different nations try to provide solution to anti-social behavior. The worst cases of anti-socialism are often reported in the media, though the federal law various different scenarios. Bullying is an example of anti-social behavior in the society. Bullying occurs because of the extreme narcissism and aggressive drives. There are five sub-categories of antisocial behavior, which nomadic, malevolent, covetous, risk-taking, and reputation defending. Hormones and neurotransmitters have been identified to cause anti-socialism. Whereas it has been indicated that lower serotonin levels might be linked to anti-socialism, there is also proof that reduced serotonin function is significantly associated with aggression and impulsiveness across various experimental frameworks. Therapy has been found to be efficient in individuals suffering from anti-socialism.
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